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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: 2. nei-, neiu-, ni-   'to be moved, excited; to shine'

Semantic Fields: Passion; to Shine, Glisten


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hnitu n.fem nit W7/ASD
  nið n.masc enmity, hostility LRC
  nið-hedig adj lit. battle-resolved LRC
Middle English: net adj clean, bright W7
  nite n nit, insect egg W7
English: anil n indigo plant/dye AHD
  natty adj neat, trim, smart, tidy, dapper AHD
  neat adj straight, free from dilution/admixture AHD/W7
  net adj free from all charges/deductions AHD/W7
  niddering n.arch wretch, cowardly person AHD
  nilgai n large long-legged Indian antelope AHD
  nit n egg of louse/other parasitic insect AHD/W7
Old Frisian: nith n envy, hatred, enmity ASD
Old Saxon: nið n envy, hatred, enmity ASD
Old High German: (h)niz n nit W7/ASD
  nid n envy, hatred, enmity ASD
German: Niss n nit ASD
Old Norse: nið n.neut waning moon LRC
Icelandic: gnit n.fem nit ASD
  nið n libel, lampoon ASD
Gothic: neiþ n envy, hatred, enmity ASD
Latin: niteo, nitere vb to shine W7
  nitidus adj neat; bright W7
Portuguese: anil n anil AHD
Middle French: net adj clean W7
French: anil n anil AHD
Greek: konis, konidos n.fem dust, ashes W7
Old Persian: naiba- adj beautiful W7
Persian: nil n indigo, dark blue AHD
Sanskrit: nila- n indigo, dark blue AHD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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