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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: nek-   'death, dying, necrosis; corpse'

Semantic Fields: to Die; Dead; Death; Corpse, Body


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: innocent adj innocent W7
  nigromancie n necromancy, magic W7
  nocent adj nocent, guilty, criminal W7
  nusaunce n nuisance W7
English: innocent adj blameless, free from sin/guilt AHD/W7
  innocuous adj harmless, causing no injury AHD/W7
  internecine adj deadly, marked by slaughter AHD/W7
  necr(o)- pfx dead, death AHD/W7
  Necromancer prop.n Sauron in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
  necromancy n conjuration of/divination re: dead spirits AHD/W7
  necrosis n (localized) tissue death AHD/W7
  nectar n drink of Greek/Roman gods AHD/W7
  nectarine n aromatic peach with smooth waxy skin AHD
  nocent adj harmful AHD/W7
  nocuous adj harmful, likely to cause injury AHD/W7
  noxious adj harmful, destructive AHD/W7
  nuisance n annoyance, injury AHD/W7
  obnoxious adj susceptible to hurtful influence AHD/W7
  pernicious adj deadly, highly destructive/injurious AHD/W7
Latin: innocens, innocentis adj innocent, having no harmful intent W7
  innocuus adj harmless W7
  internecinus adj leading to massacre W7
  interneco, internecare vb to kill, destroy W7
  neco, necare vb to kill W7
  nectar n.neut nectar W7
  nex, necis n.fem violent death W7
  nocens, nocentis adj wicked W7
  noceo, nocere vb to harm W7
  nocuus adj hurtful W7
  noxa n.fem harm W7
  noxius adj harmful W7
  obnoxius adj liable, guilty W7
  pernicies n.fem destruction W7
  perniciosus adj dangerous, treacherous W7
Late Latin: necromantia n.fem necromancy W7
  necrosis n.fem death of living tissue W7
Medieval Latin: nigromantia n.fem necromancy W7
Old French: nuisir vb to harm W7
Anglo-French: nusaunce n.fem nuisance W7
Middle French: innocent adj innocent W7
  nigromancie n.fem necromancy W7
French: pernicieux adj rampant, subtle, treacherous W7
Greek: nekrós n.masc corpse LRC
  nekrow vb to make dead W7
  nekrosis n.fem necrosis W7
  nektar n.neut nectar W7
Late Greek: nekromanteia n.fem necromancy W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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