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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. nem-   'to nim, take, give, count, apportion'

Semantic Fields: to Take; to Give; Account, Reckoning


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: nem n gift LRC
Old English: beniman/biniman vb to deprive W7/ASD
  (ge)niman, (ge)nam, (ge)namon, (ge)numen vb.str.IV to take, seize LRC
  numol adj holding much W7
Middle English: astronomie/astronemie n astronomy W7/CDC
  benimen vb to deprive W7
  benomen vb to benumb W7
  innumerable adj innumerable W7
  nimel adj nimble W7
  nimen vb to take W7
  nombre n number W7
  nomen adj numb W7
  -nomie n.sfx -nomy W7
English: anomie n situation in which norms of belief/conduct are weak/lacking AHD/W7
  antinomian adj/n (re:) adherent of antinomianism AHD
  antinomianism n belief that Gospel frees Christians from law AHD
  antinomy n contradiction between equally valid principles/inferences AHD/W7
  astronomer n one who studies stars/planets/galaxies AHD
  astronomy n science of celestial bodies AHD/W7
  autonomous adj independent AHD/W7
  benumb vb.trans to deaden, make inactive/insensitive AHD/W7
  Deuteronomy prop.n fifth book of Pentateuch: 2nd statement of law AHD/CDC
  economic adj re: economy, household (management) W7
  economy n management of household/private affairs (esp. expenses) AHD/W7
  enumerate vb.trans to count, ascertain number of AHD/W7
  innumerable adj countless, too many to be counted AHD/W7
  metronome n instrument for marking time via repeated ticks AHD/W7
  Nemesis prop.n goddess of retributive justice (Greek/Roman mythology) AHD/W7
  nemesis n one that inflicts vengeance/retribution AHD/W7
  nim vb to filch, steal AHD/W7
  nimble adj lively, re: quick light movement AHD/W7
  noma n spreading gangrene in lining of lips/cheeks AHD/W7
  nomad n wanderer, one with no fixed residence AHD/W7
  nomadic adj roaming, wandering, re: nomad W7
  nome n province (ancient Egypt) AHD/W7
  nomograph n graph with three coplanar curves AHD
  nomology n study/discovery of general physical/logical laws AHD
  nomothetic adj legislative, re: lawmaking AHD
  -nomy n.sfx laws/knowledge re: (specified) field AHD/W7
  numb adj devoid of sensation AHD/W7
  number n total, sum/count of units AHD/W7
  numeral adj re: number(s) AHD/W7
  numismatic adj re: study/collection of coins/tokens/etc. AHD/W7
  nummular adj oval/circular in shape (like coin) AHD/W7
  nummulite n fossil foraminifer resembling coin AHD
  supernumerary adj exceeding stated/prescribed number AHD/W7
  taphonomy n study of fossilization AHD/CDC
Old Frisian: nima/nema vb to take ASD
Dutch: nemen vb to take LRC
Old Saxon: niman vb to take ASD
Old High German: neman vb to take W7
German: Antinomie n antinomy W7
  ausgenommen prep except TLL
  nehmen vb to take LRC
Old Norse: nema/nima vb to take, catch, amount to LRC
Icelandic: nema vb to take ASD
Gothic: arbinumja n heir LRC
  niman vb.str.IV to take, receive LRC
Latin: antinomia n.fem contrary, conflict of laws W7
  astronomia n.fem astronomy W7
  enumero, enumerare, enumeravi, enumeratus vb to count, enumerate W7
  innumerabilis adj innumerable W7
  Nemesis prop.n.fem Nemesis W7
  nomas, nomadis n.masc nomad, member of pastoral people W7
  -nomia sfx disposition of W7
  numerabilis adj numerable W7
  numero, numerare vb to count W7
  numerus, numeri n.masc class, number, repute LRC
  numerus n.masc number W7
  nummulus n.masc.dim little coin W7
  nummus n.masc coin W7
Late Latin: numeralis adj re: numbers W7
  supernumerarius adj supernumerary W7
Medieval Latin: Antinomus prop.n antinomian AHD
  antinomus adj opposed to moral law AHD
  oeconomia n.fem economy W7
New Latin: noma n.fem ulcer W7
Old French: astronomie n.fem astronomy W7
  nombre n.masc number W7
  -nomie sfx naming, laws governing discipline W7
Middle French: numeral adj re: numbers W7
  yconomie n.fem economy W7
French: anomie n.fem lawlessness W7
  numismatique n.fem study of coins W7
  nummulaire adj nummular, re: coins W7
Lithuanian: namai n.masc house LRC
  nuomas n rent, interest LRC
Latvian: núoma vb to rent, lease LRC
Albanian: ekonomi n.fem economy LRC
  ekonomik adj economic LRC
Homeric Greek: némesis n just anger/censure/indignation LRC
  nemes(s)áô vb to be justly angry/indignant LRC
  némô vb to tend, manage; allot, divide, dispense LRC
Greek: anomia n.fem lawlessness W7
  anomos adj lawless W7
  astronomia n.fem astronomy W7
  autonomos adj autonomous W7
  nomas, nomados n.masc/fem nomad; animal that pastures W7
  nome n.fem ulcer W7
  -nomia sfx rule, custom W7
  nomimos adj customary W7
  nomisma, nomismatos n.neut coin; custom W7
  nómos n.masc law, rule, custom LRC
  -nomos sfx measuring, controlling W7
  oikonomia n.fem economy, household management W7
  oikonomos n.masc household manager W7
Avestan: nemah n loan, obligation LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
IV=class 4
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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