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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: 1. neu-   'to call, praise'

Semantic Fields: to Call, Summon; Praise (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: announcen vb to announce W7
  denouncen vb to denounce W7
  pronouncen vb to pronounce W7
  renouncen vb to renounce W7
English: announce vb to proclaim, make known publicly AHD/W7
  denounce vb.trans to declare, announce AHD/OED
  enunciate vb to make definite/systematic statement AHD/W7
  internuncio n go-between, messenger between two parties AHD/W7
  nuncio n papal ambassador AHD/W7
  pronounce vb to utter officially/ceremoniously AHD/W7
  renounce vb to refuse/resign/give up by formal declaration AHD/W7
German: annoncieren vb to announce TLL
  denunzieren vb to denounce LRC
Swedish: annonsera vb to announce TLL
Latin: annuntio, annuntiare vb to announce W7
  denuntio, denuntiare vb to denounce W7
  enuntio, enuntiare, enuntiavi, enuntiatus vb to report, declare W7
  internuntius n.masc messenger, mediator W7
  nuntio, nuntiare vb to report W7
  nuntius/nuncius n.masc messenger, message W7
  pronuntio, pronuntiare, pronuntiavi, pronuntiatum vb to pronounce LRC
  renuntio, renuntiare vb to renounce W7
Old French: anoncier vb to announce AHD
  denoncier vb to denounce W7
Middle French: annoncer vb to announce W7
  prononcier vb to pronounce W7
  renoncer vb to renounce W7
Italian: nunzio n.masc nuncio W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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