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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ndhos, ndheri   'under'

Semantic Fields: Deep; Low


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: under prep under, among, before, during W7/ASD
  underneoþan adv/prep underneath W7/ASD
Middle English: inferior adj inferior W7
  infernal adj infernal W7
  under prep under W7
  undernethe prep/adv underneath W7
English: inferior adj lower, situated below AHD/W7
  infernal adj re: nether world of dead AHD/W7
  inferno n place/state resembling/suggesting hell AHD/W7
  infra- pfx below AHD/W7
  U-boat prop.n Austro-Hungarian/German submarine LRC
  under adv/prep in(to) position below/beneath something AHD/W7
  Underharrow prop.n Rohan village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Underhill prop.n Hobbiton family in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  underneath prep directly below, close beneath AHD/W7
  Undertowers prop.n Shire town in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Old Frisian: under prep/adv under ASD
Dutch: onder prep under TLL
Old Saxon: undar prep/adv under ASD
Old High German: untar prep/adv under W7
German: U-boot n.neut U-boat W7
  unter prep under LRC
  Unterseeboot n.neut submarine, lit. undersea boat W7
Icelandic: undir prep/adv under ASD
Danish: under prep in, during, under TLL
Swedish: under prep in, during, under TLL
Gothic: undar prep/adv under ASD
Latin: inferior adj.comp inferior, less good W7
  inferus, inferi adj/n.neut low, nether; lower part LRC
  infra adv/prep below, under W7
Late Latin: infernalis adj infernal W7
  infernus adj infernal, of hell, under the earth W7
Old French: infernal adj infernal, of hell W7
Italian: fra prep in TLL
  infèrno n.masc hell, horror, inferno W7
Sanskrit: adha prep under, below W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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