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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: 1. ous- : uus-   'os, mouth'

Semantic Field: Mouth

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: ora n.masc brass, border; Danish coin W7/ASD
Middle English: ussher n usher W7
English: Auriga prop.n winter constellation of northern sky LRC
  inosculate vb to blend, unite by contact/apposition AHD/W7
  oral adj spoken, uttered by mouth/in words AHD/W7
  orinasal adj pronounced with oral/nasal passages open AHD
  orotund adj pompous, bombastic, self-satisfied AHD
  os n mouth, orifice AHD/W7
  oscillate vb.intrans to vibrate, swing back and forth like pendulum AHD/W7
  oscitancy n act of gaping/yawning AHD
  osculate vb.trans to kiss AHD/W7
  osculum n mouthlike opening in sponge AHD
  ostiary n doorkeeper AHD/W7
  ostium n mouthlike entrance/other opening AHD/W7
  peroral adj occurring via mouth AHD/W7
  usher n officer/servant at door of court/hall/chamber AHD/W7
Italic  
Latin: Auriga n.masc the Charioteer W7
  ora, orae n.fem mouth, coast, border, boundary LRC
  os, oris n.neut mouth, face LRC
  oscillo, oscillare, oscillavi, oscillatus vb to swing, oscillate W7
  oscillum n.neut swing W7
  osculor, osculari, osculatus vb.dep to kiss, osculate W7
  osculum n.neut kiss W7
  ostiarius n.masc doorkeeper W7
  ostium, ostii n.neut mouth, door, entrance LRC
  ustium n.neut door, mouth of river W7
Vulgar Latin: ustiarius n.masc doorkeeper W7
New Latin: ostium n.neut mouth-like opening W7
Middle French: ussier n.masc doorkeeper W7
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: ustiti, usto, ustisi vb to exhort LRC

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
dep=deponent
fem=feminine (gender)
intrans=intransitive
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
prop=proper
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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