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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: pa- : pu-, and pa-t- : pu-t-   'to feed, graze, pasture'

Semantic Field: to Pasture


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fedan vb to feed RPN
  foda n.masc food RPN/ASD
  fod(d)or/fod(d)er/foddur n.neut fodder RPN/ASD
  fostor n/pfx food, feeding; foster W7
Middle English: bezear n bezoar, magic stone poison antidote AHD
  compainoun n companion W7
  companie n company W7
  feden vb to feed W7
  fodder n fodder W7
  fode n food W7
  forage n forage W7
  forrayen vb to foray W7
  foster n foster W7
  furren vb to fur W7
  panetrie n pantry W7
  panier n pannier W7
  pastour n pastor W7
  pasture n pasture W7
  repast n repast W7
  satrap n provincial governor W7
English: antipasto n hors d'oeuvre AHD/W7
  appanage n grant to dependent royal family member AHD/W7
  bezoar n ruminant alimentary concretion AHD/W7
  breastfeed, breastfed vb.str to feed from breast LRC
  companion n comrade AHD/W7
  company n fellowship, association with another AHD/W7
  feed, fed vb.str to give food to AHD/W7
  fodder n food for domestic animals AHD/W7
  food n vital dietary material AHD/W7
  forage n food for animals AHD/W7
  foray vb to pillage, ravage searching for spoils AHD/W7
  foster adj re: nurture/care not required by blood/legal ties AHD/W7
  fourragere n braided cord AHD/W7
  fur n mammal pelt thickly covered by fine soft hair LRC
  fur vb to line/trim/clothe/cover with fur AHD/W7
  furrier n fur dealer AHD/W7
  pabulum n food (esp. in solution) AHD/W7
  panada n paste of flour/bread crumbs in water/stock AHD/W7
  panatela n long slender cigar AHD/W7
  pannier n large basket AHD/W7
  panocha n coarse Mexican sugar AHD
  pantry n room/closet used to store provisions/dinnerware AHD/W7
  pastern n part of equine foot extending from fetlock to coffin bone AHD/W7
  pastille n aromatic paste for scenting/fumigating air AHD/W7
  pastor n shepherd, herdsman AHD/W7
  pasture n plants grown to feed animals AHD/W7
  pasture vb to graze, browse, keep in pasture W7
  penuche n fudge made with milk/cream, butter, brown sugar, nuts AHD/W7
  pester vb.trans to overcrowd AHD/W7
  repast n meal, something taken as food AHD/W7
  satrap n provincial governor AHD/W7
Scots English: fede vb to feed ASD
Old Frisian: foda/feda vb to feed ASD
Frisian: fieden vb to feed ASD
Dutch: voeden vb to feed ASD
  voeder/voer n.neut fodder, provender ASD
Old Saxon: fodjan/fuodjan vb to feed ASD
Low German: föde/vde n food ASD
  foder/vo(d)er n fodder ASD
Old High German: fuotar n.neut food, fodder W7/ASD
  fuotjan vb to feed ASD
Middle High German: vuoten/vüeten vb to feed ASD
  vuoter n.neut fodder ASD
German: Futter n.neut fodder ASD
  füttern vb to feed ASD
Old Icelandic: fóðr n fodder RPN
Icelandic: foðr n.neut fodder ASD
  fæða vb to feed ASD
  fæði n.neut food ASD
Danish: fo(d)er n.neut fodder ASD
  föde vb to feed ASD
  føde n.masc/fem food ASD
  fødsel n birth TLL
Swedish: föda n.fem food ASD
  föda vb to feed ASD
  födelse n birth SAO
Gothic: fodeins n.fem food ASD
  foðer n.neut sheath ASD
  fodjan vb to feed, nourish RPN
Latin: pabulum n.neut food, fodder, nourishment RPN
  panarium n.neut bread-basket W7
  panis n.masc bread RPN
  pasco, pascere, pastus vb to feed, pasture RPN
  pastillus n.masc small loaf, lozenge W7
  pastor n.masc shepherd W7
  pastus n.masc food W7
  satrapes n.masc satrap W7
Vulgar Latin: impastorio, impastoriare vb to embarrass W7
  pastoria n.fem hobble W7
Late Latin: companio, companionis n.fem company W7
  pastura n.fem pasture W7
Medieval Latin: appano, appanare vb to make provisions for AHD
Spanish: pan n.masc bread W7
  panada n.fem paste of flour/bread W7
  panatela n.fem long thin biscuit W7
Mexican Spanish: panocha n.fem raw sugar W7
Old French: apanage n.masc appanage, inherited goods W7
  apaner vb to provide for (younger offspring) W7
  bezahar n bezoar AHD
  compagnie n.fem company W7
  compagnon, compain n.masc companion W7
  feurre n fodder AHD
  forage n.masc forage W7
  forrer vb to fill up with W7
  paistre vb to feed W7
  pan n.masc bread W7
  paneterie n.fem pantry W7
  panetier n.masc servant in charge of pantry W7
  pastour n.masc pastor W7
  repaistre vb to feed W7
  repast n.masc repast W7
Middle French: empestrer vb to hobble, embarrass W7
  forage n.masc forage W7
  forre n.fem looting W7
  forrer vb to loot W7
  fourrer vb to fill up with W7
  paneterie n.fem pantry W7
  panier n.masc basket W7
  pasture n.fem pasture, tether attached to a horse's foot W7
  pasturon n.masc part of horse leg W7
  repast n.masc repast W7
French: apanage n.masc appanage, inherited goods W7
  fourragère n.fem lanyard, fourragere W7
  pastille n.fem flat candy W7
Old Proven├žal: apanar vb to support W7
Italian: antipasto n.masc antipasto, side dish W7/CID
  pasto n food AHD
Greek: poy n.masc herd W7
  satrapes n.masc satrap W7
Old Persian: khshathra-pava n satrap, lit. province-protector AHD
  pa vb to protect LRC
Persian: pad vb.ptc protecting (against) AHD/W7
  padzahr n bezoar, lit. poison protector AHD
Sanskrit: pati vb to protect W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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