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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: pak-, and pag-   'to repair, strengthen'

Semantic Field: to Do, Make

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: feng n.masc fang, tusk; prey, loot, spoil, booty IEW
  fengel n.masc prince, leader ASD
  (ge)fon, (ge)feng, (ge)fengon, (ge)fangen vb.str.VII to take, seize LRC
  pal n.masc pole, stake W7/ASD
Middle English: appesen vb to appease W7
  compact adj compact W7
  fang n fang W7
  newefangel/newfangled adj newfangled W7
  pacifien vb to pacify W7
  pact n pact W7
  padgeant n pageant, lit. scene of play W7
  pagan n pagan W7
  pagyn n pageant W7
  paissaunt n peasant W7
  pale n pale W7
  palen vb to pale W7
  pax n pax W7
  payen vb to pay W7
  pees n peace W7
  pel n pole, stake, stockade W7
  pele n peel W7
  pole n pole W7
  travail n travail W7
  travailen vb to travail, journey W7
English: appease vb.trans to calm, bring to state of peace/quiet AHD/W7
  Areopagus prop.n Hill of Ares (in Athens) LRC
  compact adj made, composed AHD/W7
  compact vb to compress, combine, consolidate W7
  Fang prop.n huge dog in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  fang n long sharp tooth AHD/W7
  Fengel prop.n 15th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  impact vb.trans to fix firmly by packing/wedging AHD/W7
  impale vb.trans to surround, enclose with stakes/palisade AHD/W7
  impinge vb to strike/dash (esp. via sharp collision) AHD/W7
  mastopexy n surgery to lift/reshape breast AHD
  newfangled adj attracted to novelty AHD/W7
  pace prep with due respect to AHD/W7
  pacific adj conciliatory, tending to lessen conflict AHD/W7
  pacify vb.trans to allay anger/agitation AHD/W7
  pact n agreement AHD/W7
  pagan adj/n (re:) heathen AHD/W7
  page n leaf of book/tract/similar item AHD/W7
  pageant n pretense, mere show AHD/W7
  pale n stake, paling, palisade AHD/W7
  pale vb.trans to fence, enclose with pales AHD/W7
  palette n painter's thin oval/rectangular board/tablet for holding/mixing pigments AHD/W7
  palisade n fence of stakes (esp. for defense) AHD/W7
  patio n roofless courtyard for dining/recreation AHD
  pawl n pivoted tongue/sliding bolt to constrain mechanical motion to one direction AHD/W7
  pax n tablet/board decorated with figure/symbol of Christ/saint/Virgin Mary AHD/W7
  pay, paid vb.wk to make due return for services rendered/property delivered AHD/W7
  peace n state of quiet/tranquillity AHD/W7
  peasant n person tilling soil as laborer/small landowner AHD/W7
  pectin n water-soluble gel (basis of fruit jelly) in plant tissue AHD/W7
  peel n small massive fortified medieval tower AHD/W7
  peel n long-handled flat baking tool AHD/W7
  pegmatite n coarse granite in dikes/veins AHD/W7
  pole n long slender (cylindrical) implement AHD/W7
  propagate vb to increase via reproduction AHD/W7
  spinto adj re: lyric voice with some dramatic attributes AHD
  travail n toil, work (esp. of painful/laborious nature) AHD/W7
  travail vb.intrans to toil, labor hard AHD/W7
  travel vb to journey, go (as if) on trip/tour AHD/W7
  vang n rope used to steady ship's gaff AHD
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: fa vb to take, seize ASD
Frisian: fean/fangen vb to take, seize ASD
Dutch: gevangenis n prison TLL
  pal n pawl W7
  vangen/vaan vb to take, seize ASD
  voegen vb to fit, join LRC
Old Saxon: fahan/fangan vb to take, seize ASD
Old High German: fahan vb to take, seize ASD
  fang n.masc fang; booty, seizure IEW
  pfal n pole, stake ASD
Middle High German: vahen vb to take, seize ASD
German: fangen/fahen vb to take, seize ASD
  Fuge n seam, joint LRC
  fügen vb to fit, join LRC
  Gefängnis n prison TLL
N-Germanic  
Old Norse:  vb to give/receive, put/take; have, make use of LRC
Icelandic: fa/fanga vb to take, seize ASD
  páll n pale; hoe, spade ASD
Danish: faa(e) vb to take, seize ASD
  fængsel n prison TLL
  føje vb to fit, join SAO
Swedish: foga vb to fit, join SAO
  få(nga) vb to take, seize ASD
  fängelse n prison TLL
E-Germanic  
Gothic: fahan vb to take, seize ASD
Italic  
Latin: Areopagus n.masc Areopagus W7
  compingo, compingere, compegi, compactus vb to compact, put together W7
  impingo, impingere, impegi, impactus vb to impinge, impact, pin to, push against W7
  pacifico, pacificare vb to pacify W7
  pacificus adj pacific W7
  paciscor, pacisci, pactus vb.dep to agree, contract W7
  paco, pacare vb to pacify W7
  pactum n.neut pact W7
  paganus n.masc country dweller W7
  pagina n.fem page W7
  pagus n.masc country district W7
  pala n.fem spade, shovel W7
  palus n.masc pale W7
  pango, pangere vb to fix, fasten W7
  pax, pacis n.fem peace LRC
  propages n.fem slip, offspring W7
  propago, propagare, propagavi, propagatus vb to propagate, set slips W7
  tripalis adj having three pales/stakes W7
Vulgar Latin: tripalio, tripaliare vb to torture W7
  tropalium n.neut instrument of torture W7
Late Latin: paganus n.masc non-Christian W7
  pagensis n.masc inhabitant of district W7
Medieval Latin: impalo, impalare vb to impale, kill on stake W7
  pagina n.fem page W7
Portuguese: pagão adj pagan TLL
  pagar vb to pay TLL
  trabalho n travail TLL
Spanish: pagano adj pagan TLL
  pagar vb to pay TLL
  patio n.masc patio, courtyard LRC
  trabajo n travail TLL
Old French: apaisier vb to appease W7
  paier vb to pay W7
  païs n.masc country W7
  pais n.fem peace W7
  paisant n.masc peasant W7
  travail n.masc work, torture W7
  traveillier/travaillier/travailler vb to work, torture W7
Anglo-French: pel n.fem pole, stockade W7
Middle French: empaler vb to impale, kill on stake W7
  pacifique adj pacific W7
  pact n.masc pact W7
  page n.fem page W7
  paisant n.masc peasant W7
  pal n.masc pale W7
  pale/pele n.fem spade, shovel W7
  paler vb to submit to the pale W7
  pel n.masc pale W7
French: palette n.fem flat instrument: spade, shovel, etc. W7
  palissade n.fem palisade W7
  payen adj pagan TLL
  payer vb to pay TLL
  pectine n.fem pectin W7
  pectique adj containing pectin W7
  pegmatite n.fem type of granite W7
  travail n travail TLL
Italian: pagano adj pagan TLL
  pagare vb to pay TLL
  travaglio n travail TLL
Hellenic  
Homeric Greek: págos n.masc hill, cliff, mountain peak LS
Greek: pegma, pegmatos n.neut something fastened together W7
  pegnyw vb to fasten together W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VII=class 7
adj=adjective
dep=deponent
fem=feminine (gender)
intrans=intransitive
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
prep=preposition
prop=proper
str=strong (inflection)
trans=transitive
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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