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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: 1. ped-, pod-   'to hold; vat, vessel, container'

Semantic Field: to Hold

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: fæt n.neut vat, cup W7
Middle English: fat n vat W7
  fetlen vb to shape, prepare W7
  vat n vat W7
English: fettle vb.trans to line/cover hearth (of furnace) with fettling AHD/W7
  vat n large vessel for holding liquids AHD/W7
Scots English: fat n cask, barrel ASD
W-Germanic  
Dutch: vat n.neut vat ASD
Old Saxon: fat n.neut vat ASD
Low German: fat/vat n.neut vat ASD
Old High German: faz/vaz n.neut vat ASD/W7
Middle High German: vay n.neut vat ASD
German: Fass n.neut vat ASD
N-Germanic  
Icelandic: fat n.neut vat ASD
Danish: fad n.neut vat ASD
Swedish: fat n.neut vat ASD
Baltic  
Lithuanian: poudas n.masc pot, saucepan W7/LD

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LD=Bronius Piesarskas and Bronius Svecevicius: Lithuanian Dictionary (1994)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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