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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. peis-? : pis-   'to grind, trample'

Semantic Fields: to Grind; to Drop; Foot


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: pil n.masc pile, pointed stick/spike ODE
  pile n.fem mortar ASD
Middle English: pestel n pestle W7
  pile n pile, dart W7
  tisane n tisane W7
English: pestle n implement for grinding/pounding substance in mortar AHD/W7
  pesto n Italian pasta sauce: olive oil, basil, cheese, garlic, pine nuts AHD
  pile n point, spike; stake/timber driven into ground AHD/W7
  pile vb to drive (pile) into ground AHD/W7
  piste n densely packed ski trail AHD
  pistil n ovule-bearing organ of seed plant AHD/W7
  piston n sliding piece moved by/moving against fluid pressure AHD/W7
  pistou n sauce made from garlic/basil/olive oil AHD
  ptisan n barley decoction with other ingredients AHD/W7
  tisane n infusion used as beverage/medicine AHD/W7
Middle Dutch: pil n pile ODE
Dutch: pijl n pile ODE
Middle Low German: pil n pile ODE
  visel n pestle W7
Old High German: pfil n pile ODE
German: Pfeil n.masc bolt, dart, arrow ODE
Old Norse: píll n willow (pile) KNW
Danish: pil n willow (pile) TLL
Swedish: pil n willow (pile) TLL
Latin: pila n.fem mortar IEW
  pilum n.neut spear/javelin; pestle W7
  pinso, pinsere vb to crush, stamp, pound W7
  pistillum n.neut pestle W7
  pistor, pistoris n.masc miller, grinder LRC
  pistus vb.ptc ground, crushed W7
  ptisana n.fem ptisan, crushed barley W7
Medieval Latin: pisto, pistare vb to mill, grind, pound W7
New Latin: pistillum n.neut pistil W7
Middle French: pestel n.masc javelin W7
  tisane n.fem herb tea, decoction W7
French: piston n.masc piston W7
Italian: pistone n.masc piston W7
Greek: ptisane n.fem ptisan, crushed barley W7
  ptíssô vb to crush, stamp, pound LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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