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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. pek-   'to fleece; fee, cattle'

Semantic Fields: Wool; Cattle, Bovines


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fe(a)x n.neut hair, locks IEW/ASD
  feoh/fioh n.str.neut fee, wealth; (name for) F-rune ASD
  feoh-gift n.fem money-gift, lit. cattle-gift LRC
  feoh-leas adj moneyless, lit. without cattle LRC
  feohtan, feaht, fuhton, fohten vb.str.III to fight LRC
  feo-laga n fellow, partner, lit. money-layer W7
Middle English: enfeoffen vb to enfeoff W7
  fe/fe(o)h n fee W2I
  felawe n fellow W7
  feoffement n feoffment W7
  fighten vb to fight W7
  impecunious adj impecunious W7
  peculier adj peculiar W7
  pecunious adj pecunious W7
English: ctenidium n comblike structure AHD
  ctenoid adj having toothed margin AHD/W7
  ctenophore n marine animal resembling jellyfish AHD/W7
  enfeoff vb.trans to invest with fief/other possessions AHD/W7
  fee n cattle; goods, money, property AHD/W2I
  fellow n comrade, associate AHD/W7
  Fellowship prop.n band of 9 heroes in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  fellowship n group of friends/comrades LRC
  feoffment n granting a fief AHD/W7
  feud n fee AHD/W7
  fief n fee, feudal estate AHD/W7
  fight, fought vb.str to contend in battle/physical combat AHD/W7
  impecunious adj penniless, having little/no money AHD/W7
  pecorino n Italian cheese made from ewe's milk AHD
  pecten n body part resembling comb AHD/W7
  peculate vb.trans to embezzle AHD/W7
  peculiar adj belonging exclusively to single person/group AHD/W7
  pecuniary adj re: money AHD/W7
  pecunious adj.obs rich, wealthy AHD/W7
  Shadowfax prop.n Gandalf's silver-gray horse in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Scots English: fecht vb to fight ASD
Old Frisian: fax n hair, locks ASD
  fia/fya n.neut fee ASD
  fiuchta vb to fight ASD
Frisian: fjuechten vb to fight ASD
Dutch: vechten vb to fight ASD
  vee n.neut fee ASD
Old Saxon: fahs n.neut hair, locks ASD
  fehtan vb to fight ASD
  fehu/fe/fio n fee, wealth CDC/ASD
Low German: fee/vee/veih n.neut fee CDC/ASD
Old High German: fahs n.neut hair, locks ASD
  fehtan vb to fight W7
  fehu/fihu n.neut fee CDC/ASD
Middle High German: vahs n.masc hair, locks ASD
  vehten vb to fight ASD
  vihe n.neut fee ASD
German: fechten vb to fight ASD
  Vieh n.neut fee ASD
Runic: *fehu n fee, wealth; (name for) F-rune LRC
Old Norse:  n.neut fee, sheep LRC
  felag(i) n fellowship, partnership W7
  fær n sheep KNW
Icelandic: fax n.neut mane ASD
  fe n.neut fee ASD
Danish: faar n sheep TLL
  fegte/fægte vb to fight ASD
   n.neut fee ASD
Swedish: får n sheep SAO
   n.neut fee ASD
  fäkta vb to fight ASD
Gothic: faihu n.neut fee LRC
Latin: pecten, pectinis n.masc comb W7
  pecto, pectere vb to comb W7
  peculatus n.masc corruption, embezzlement W7
  peculiaris adj re: private property W7
  peculium n.neut private property W7
  peculor, peculari vb.dep to defraud the State W7
  pecunia, pecuniae n.fem wealth, riches LRC
  pecuniarius adj pecuniary W7
  pecuniosus adj pecunious W7
  pecus, pecoris n.neut fee, domestic animal ELD
Medieval Latin: feodum n.neut treatise W7
Old French: fief n.masc land, castle, property W7
Anglo-French: enfeoffer vb to enfeoff W7
  feoffement n.masc feoffment W7
  feoffer vb to enfeoff W7
Italian: pecora n.fem sheep LRC
  pecorino n.masc pecorino LRC
Lithuanian: pekus n cattle LRC
Greek: kteís n.masc comb, rake LS
  kten- pfx comb W7
  ktenoeides adj ctenoid, comb-like W7
Avestan: fsu- n cattle LRC
Sanskrit: pasu- n.masc cattle LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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