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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: pelu-, pla-   'plane, flat, wide, broad'

Semantic Fields: Flat; Wide, Broad


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: lám n hand, arm RPN
Welsh: llawr n.masc floor ASD
  llydan adj wide, broad RPN
Old English: fe(a)ld n.masc field, plain, pasture ASD
  flor n.masc floor, pavement ASD
  folde n.fem earth, ground; land, country, district LRC
  folm(e) n.fem palm (of hand) RPN
  palm/pælme n.masc/fem palm (tree) ASD
  palm-æppel n date, lit. palm-apple ASD
  palm-treow n palm-tree ASD
  plaster n plaster W7
Middle English: afelde adv to the fields MEV
  explanen vb to explain W7
  feld(e)/filde n field MEV
  field n field W7
  flor n floor W7
  palm n palm (tree) W7
  paume n palm (of hand) W7
  plain n plain W7
  plainen vb to plain W7
  plane n plane W7
  planete n planet W7
  plaster n plaster W7
English: aplanatic adj free from/corrected for spherical aberration AHD/W7
  Barrowfield prop.n Rohan cemetery in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Bridgefields prop.n Shire area in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  dysplasia n abnormal cell/organ/tissue growth/development AHD
  Eastfold prop.n Rohan district in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  esplanade n open stretch of level paved/grassy ground AHD/W7
  explain vb to make plain/understandable AHD/W7
  feldspar n crystalline mineral: aluminum silicates with barium/calcium/sodium/potassium AHD/W7
  field n open land area sans woods/buildings AHD/W7
  Firienfeld prop.n Dunharrow meadow in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  flaneur n aimless person AHD/W7
  floor n part of room where one stands AHD/W7
  Folde prop.n area of Rohan in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Greenfields prop.n Shire battle locale in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  metaplasm n alteration of text w.r.t. letters/syllables/words AHD/W7
  palm n (sub)tropical monocotyledonous tree/shrub/vine AHD/W7
  palmary adj best, outstanding AHD/W7
  piano adv softly, quietly (in music) AHD/W7
  piano n musical instrument in percussive group CDC
  pianoforte n piano AHD
  plain n level/rolling treeless countryside AHD/W7
  plain vb.intrans to complain AHD/W7
  planarian n small soft-bodied ciliated aquatic turbellarian worm AHD/W7
  plane adj flat, having no elevations/depressions AHD/W7
  plane n flat surface: straight lines joining points lie wholly in surface AHD/W7
  plane n tool for shaping/smoothing wood surface AHD/W7
  plane vb.intrans to soar on wings AHD/W7
  plane vb.trans to level, make flat/smooth/even AHD/W7
  planet n heavenly body (Mercury, Venus, Earth, etc.) revolving around Sol AHD/W7
  planish vb.trans to make plane/smooth AHD/W7
  planula n free-swimming ciliated coelenterate larva AHD/W7
  -plasia n.sfx formation, development AHD/W7
  plasma n green faintly translucent quartz AHD/W7
  plasmodesma n cytoplasm strand connecting plant cells AHD
  -plast n.sfx cell, organized granule/particle AHD/W7
  plaster n medicinal preparation stiffer than ointment AHD/W7
  plastic adj creative, formative AHD/W7
  plastid n body of specialized protoplasm in cell cytoplasm AHD/W7
  -plasty n.sfx plastic surgery AHD/W7
  Polack prop.n Polish man LRC
  polka n vivacious Bohemian dance (for couples) AHD/W7
  polynya n open water area in sea ice AHD/W7
  protoplasm n living content of cell TLL
  tonoplast n vacuolar membrane AHD
  toxoplasma n parasitic sporozoan AHD
  veld(t) n S African grassland AHD/W7
  Westfold prop.n Rohan district in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Old Frisian: f(i)eld n field ASD
Frisian: fjild n field ASD
Middle Dutch: veld n field W7
Dutch: plein n town square TLL
  veld n.neut field ASD
  vloer n.masc floor ASD
Afrikaans: veld n veldt, field W7
Old Saxon: feld n.masc field ASD
  folda n.fem field, earth ASD
  folmos the hands ASD
  palma n palm (tree) ASD
Low German: floor n.masc floor ASD
Old High German: feld n.neut field ASD
  fluor/flur n field, meadow W7/ASD
  folma n.fem palm (of hand) RPN/ASD
  palma n palm (tree) W7
  pflastar n.neut plaster ASD
Middle High German: velt n.neut field ASD
  vluor n.masc field ASD
German: Feld n.neut field W7
  Feldspat(h) n.masc feldspar W7
  Flur n.fem field; floor ASD
  Palme n.fem palm (tree) LRC
  Pflaster n.neut plaster TLL
  Plasma n.neut plasma W7
  Plastid n plastid W7
Old Norse: flana vb to rush around W7
  fold n.fem field, earth, world LRC
Icelandic: falma vb to grope about ASD
  flor n.masc floor, pavement ASD
  fold n.fem field, earth ASD
  palmr n palm (tree) ASD
Danish: famle vb to grope ASD
  fælled n.masc/fem field ASD
Swedish: famla vb to grope ASD
  fält n.neut field ASD
Latin: emplastrum n.neut cast W7
  explano, explanare vb to make level W7
  metaplasmus n.masc transformation W7
  palma n.fem palm (of hand); palm-tree RPN
  palmarius adj deserving the palm W7
  palmus n.masc measure of length (palm of hand) W7
  plango, plangere vb to beat, strike W7
  planum adj flat W7
  planum n.neut plain, flat ground W7
  planus adj even, level, flat, plane RPN
  plasticus adj of molding W7
Late Latin: plana n.fem tool for leveling W7
  planeta n.fem planet W7
  plano, planare vb to level W7
  planus adj smooth W7
  plasma n.neut something molded W7
  -plastus sfx molding, shaping W7
New Latin: planula n.fem (type of) larva W7
  -plasia sfx formation, development W7
  plasma n.neut blood component W7
Old French: plain adj flat W7
  planète n.fem planet W7
Middle French: paume n.fem palm (of hand) W7
  plaindre vb to complain W7
  plan adj level W7
  planir vb to level W7
  -plaste sfx molded W7
French: esplanade n.fem esplanade, public place W7
  flâneur n.masc idler, lazy person W7
  plan adj plane W7
  planer vb to plane, glide in air W7
  planeur n.masc glider W7
  -plastie sfx molding, shaping W7
Italian: piano adj soft, plain, level W7
  spianare vb to level W7
  spianata n.fem esplanade W7
Lithuanian: plónas adj thin RPN
  plóstas n expanse, space RPN
Russian: polyn n polynya W7
Homeric Greek: planáomai vb to rove, wander LRC
Greek: emplassein vb to plaster on W7
  emplastron n.neut cast W7
  kataplássô vb to plaster over LRC
  kataplastús n.fem plaster LRC
  metaplasmos n.masc transformation W7
  metaplassein vb to remold W7
  palámê n (palm of) hand RPN
  planasthai vb to wander W7
  planes n.masc wanderer W7
  planet- stem wanderer W7
  plasis n.fem molding W7
  plasma n.neut something molded W7
  plassein vb to mold W7
  -plastes afx molder, forger W7
  plastikos adj of molding W7
  plastos adj formed, molded W7
  pláttô vb to mold, shape LRC
Late Greek: -plastia afx molding W7
Hittite: pal-hi-is adj broad RPN
Sanskrit: prthú-h adj wide, broad RPN
  práthati vb to spread, to extend RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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