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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: pent-   'to go, walk, pad, tread; way, path'

Semantic Fields: to Go; to Walk; Path


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: findan, fond, fundon, funden vb.str.III to find LRC
  onfindan, onfond, onfundon, onfunden vb.str.III to find out, realize LRC
  pæþ/paþ n.masc path, track ASD
  punt n punt W7
Middle English: finden vb to find W7
  path n path W7
  punt n punt W7
English: find, found vb.str to discover, encounter, come upon AHD/W7
  footpad n one who robs pedestrians AHD/W7
  Fundin prop.n Balin's father in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  pad n highwayman W7
  pad vb to traverse on foot AHD/W7
  path n trodden way AHD/W7
  peripatetic adj Aristotelian AHD/W7
  pons n tissue connecting body organ parts AHD
  pontifex n member of Roman Catholic priest council W7
  pontiff n pontifex AHD/W7
  pontine adj re: pons/bridges AHD
  pontoon n flat-bottomed boat AHD/W7
  punt n pontoon with square ends AHD/W7
  sputnik n satellite AHD/W7
  transpontine adj situated on other side of bridge AHD/W7
Old Frisian: finna vb to find ASD
  path/paed n path ASD
Frisian: fynnen vb to find ASD
Middle Dutch: pad n path W7
  paden vb to pad, follow a path W7
Dutch: pad n path TLL
  vinden vb to find ASD
Old Saxon: findan vb to find ASD
Low German: finnen vb to find ASD
Old High German: findan vb to find ASD
  pfad n path W7
Middle High German: vinden vb to find ASD
German: finden vb to find ASD
  Pfad n.masc path LRC
Old Norse: finna vb to find, meet; invent; notice, perceive ICE
  Fundinn prop.n Voluspa dwarf TPE
  fundinn vb.past.ptc found ICE
Icelandic: finna vb to find ASD
Danish: finde vb to find ASD
Swedish: finna vb to find ASD
Gothic: finþan vb to find ASD
Latin: peripateticus adj of the peripatetic school W7
  pons, pontis n.masc bridge LRC
  pontifex, pontificis n.masc pontiff, high priest W7
  ponto, pontonis n.masc pontoon W7
Middle French: peripatétique adj of the peripatetic school W7
French: pontife n.masc pontiff W7
Old Church Slavonic: poti' n.masc road, way, journey LRC
Homeric Greek: póntos n.masc deep sea LRC
Greek: patein vb to tread W7
  peripatein vb to discourse while pacing (like Aristotle) W7
  peripatetikos adj of the peripatetic school W7
  Póntos prop.n.masc Pontos LRC
Sanskrit: patha n path, way W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
masc=masculine (gender)
past=past (tense)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
TPE=Lee M. Hollander: The Poetic Edda (1962)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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