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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2a. per-   'to pass over/beyond'

Semantic Fields: to Move; to Overtake

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: be-foran/bi-foran prep/adv before W7/ASD
  feor prep far from LRC
  feor(r)/fior adv far W7/ASD
  firn/fyrn adj/adv old, ancient; formerly IEW/ASD
  for- pfx for- W7/ASD
  for(an) adv/prep forth, before, in front of RPN
  fore- pfx fore- W7/ASD
  fore prep/adv for, before, formerly LRC
  forma adj first, earliest LRC
  formest adj.sup foremost W7
  forþ adj/adv forth, thence LRC
  forðian vb.wk to carry out W7/ASD
  fram adj bold, stout, valiant, competent IEW
  fram prep/adv from, away RPN
  framian vb to benefit, make progress W7
  frea/freo n.masc lord, master ASD
  from prep from W7
  frum adj first, original, primitive RPN
  frum-gar n.masc leader, chieftain, patriarch, lit. first-spear ASD
  furðor/furður adv.comp further W7/ASD
  fyr(me)st/formest adj.sup first RPN/ASD
  geforðian vb to carry out W7
  preost n.masc priest W7/ASD
  prim n prime, first hour W7/ASD
  prud/prut adj proud, arrogant W7/ASD
  pryde/pryte n.fem pride W7/ASD
Middle English: aforthen vb to afford W7
  ap(p)rochen vb to approach W7/CDC
  appropriaten vb to appropriate W7
  approven/aproeven/ap(p)reven vb to approve W7/CDC
  approximate adj approximate AHD
  barde n bard AHD
  before adv/prep before W7
  depriven vb to deprive W7
  first adj first W7
  for- pfx for- W7
  for adv wherefore W7
  for(e)- pfx fore- W7
  fore prep before W7
  forme adj.sup first W7
  former(e) adj.comp former, ancestor W7
  formest adj.sup first, foremost W7
  forth adv/prep along, henceforth W7
  fra(e) adv/prep frae W7
  framen vb to construct, benefit W7
  fro adv/prep from W7
  from prep from W7
  froward adj froward W7
  furnisshen vb to furnish W7
  further adv further W7
  inprimis adv imprimis W7
  para- pfx para- W7
  pre- pfx pre- W7
  pre(i)st n priest W7
  pr(e)ove n proof W7
  primat(e) n first place W7
  primier adj premier W7
  primitif adj primitive W7
  principal n principal W7
  principle n principle W7
  prio(u)r(e) n prior, administrator W7
  prive/pryve adj private W7
  privite/pryvete n privity, secret counsel W7
  pro- pfx pro- W7
  pro n pro W7
  probable adj probable W7
  prone adj prone W7
  propinquite n propinquity W7
  propre adj proper, distinct W7
  proprete n property W7
  prouesse n prowess W7
  prove n proof W7
  proven vb to prove W7
  prow n profit, advantage W7
  pryde n pride W7
  pryme n prime W7
  pryns/prynce n prince W7
  purchacen vb to purchase W7
  reproche n reproach W7
  reproven vb to reprove W7
English: afford vb.trans to manage to bear (cost of) without major loss/detriment AHD/W7
  approach vb to near, draw closer to AHD/W7
  appropriate vb.trans to annex, take exclusive possession of AHD/W7
  approve vb to attest, prove AHD/W7
  approximate adj nearly exact/correct AHD/W7
  arpent n French land area unit AHD/W7
  bard n horse armor/ornament AHD/W7
  before adv ahead, in advance AHD/W7
  deprive vb.trans to remove AHD/W7
  expropriate vb.trans to deprive of possession/proprietary rights AHD/W7
  far adv at/to considerable spatial distance AHD/W7
  farther adj/adv.comp further, at greater distance AHD/W7
  first adj/adv foremost, preceded by none AHD/W7
  Firstborn prop.n the Elves in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  for- pfx re: neglect, failure, refusal, omission, exclusion, prohibition AHD/W7
  for prep re: goal, purpose, destination AHD/W7
  fore- pfx (occurring) earlier, beforehand AHD/W7
  fore prep/adv before; formerly AHD/W7
  forefather n ancestor AHD/W7
  forego vb to precede, go before AHD/W7
  forehead n facial part above eyes AHD/W7
  Forelithe prop.n Shire calendar's June in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  foremast n mast nearest ship's bow W7
  foremost adj first in series/progression AHD/W7
  Foreyule prop.n Shire calendar's December in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  former adj being/coming before (in time) AHD/W7
  Forn prop.n a.k.a. Tom Bombadil in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  forth adv forward, onward in time/place/order AHD/W7
  frae prep from AHD/W7
  Fram prop.n horse-folk lord in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  frame vb to go, proceed AHD/W7
  Frau tit Mrs. LRC
  Fraulein tit Miss AHD
  Fréa prop.n 4th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Fréaláf prop.n 10th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Fréawine prop.n 5th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Frey prop.n god of crops/fertility/peace/prosperity (Norse mythology) W7
  Frey(j)a prop.n goddess of love/beauty (Norse mythology) W2I
  fro prep from AHD/W7
  from prep re: source, starting point, separation AHD/W7
  froward adj habitually disposed to opposition/disobedience AHD/W7
  frump n dowdy unattractive female AHD/W7
  frumple vb to wrinkle OED
  furnish vb.trans to provide with necessities AHD/W7
  furniture n useful/necessary/desirable equipment AHD/W7
  further adj/adv.comp farther, at greater distance AHD/W7
  galore adj abundant, plentiful AHD
  imprimis adv in first place AHD/W7
  improbity n dishonesty, lack of probity/integrity AHD/W7
  improve vb to make greater in degree/amount AHD/W7
  naprapathy n treatment of disease by joint/muscle/ligament manipulation AHD
  palanquin n covered litter borne on poles AHD/W7
  para- pfx beyond, beside, alongside, aside from AHD/W7
  paramount adj of chief concern/importance AHD
  per- pfx throughout, thoroughly AHD/W7
  per prep through, by means/agency of AHD/W7
  percurrent adj running through entire length AHD/CDC
  perestroika n mid-1980's restructuring of Soviet economy/bureaucracy AHD
  peri- pfx about, all around AHD/W7
  perigee n orbital point nearest earth's center AHD
  perihelion n orbital point nearest sun's center AHD
  perinephrium n fatty connective tissue surrounding kidney AHD
  periostracum n hard protective covering of mollusk shell AHD
  periproct n area around invertebrat anus AHD
  peripteral adj surrounded by single row of columns AHD
  perissodactyl adj having toes in odd numbers/uneven disposition AHD/W7
  perplexed adj puzzled, filled with confusion/bewilderment AHD
  praedial adj landed, re: land AHD
  pr(a)eter- pfx beyond TLL
  pram n small lightweight (almost) flat-bottomed boat AHD/W7
  pre- pfx before, prior to, earlier than AHD/W7
  premier adj principal, first in rank/position/importance AHD/W7
  premier n prime minister AHD/W7
  presbyopia n inability of old eyes to focus sharply AHD
  presbyter n elder, member of governing body in early Christian church AHD/W7
  prescience n foresight, knowledge of events/actions before occurrence AHD
  prescient adj foreknowing, re: prescience AHD
  pride n being proud AHD/W7
  priest n one authorized to perform sacred religious rites AHD/W7
  primal adj primary, original, being first AHD
  primary adj primitive, first in time/development AHD/W7
  primate n bishop having precedence in province/nation AHD/W7
  primavera n white mahogany: tall tree with light-colored wood AHD
  prime adj original, first in time AHD/W7
  prime n second of canonical hours AHD/W7
  primeval adj primal, ancient, re: first/earliest age(s) AHD
  primipara n female bearing first offspring AHD/W7
  primitive adj primary, original, not derived AHD/W7
  primo adv first, in first place AHD/W7
  primo n first/leading part (in ensemble) AHD/W7
  primus n first among bishops in Scottish Episcopal Church AHD/W7
  prince n king(-to-be), monarch AHD/W7
  principal adj chief, most important/influential/consequential AHD/W7
  principle n fundamental/comprehensive law/doctrine/assumption AHD/W7
  prior n superior ranking next to abbot (in monastery) AHD/W7
  pristine adj primitive, belonging to earliest state/period AHD/W7
  private adj intended for/affecting particular class/group/person AHD/W7
  privity n joint/private knowledge of private matter AHD/W7
  privy adj belonging/relating to person in individual rather than official capacity AHD/W7
  pro- pfx taking place of, substituting for AHD/W7
  pro- pfx before, prior to, earlier than AHD/W7
  pro n (one holding) affirmative side AHD/W7
  probable adj supported by evidence establishing presumption (not proof) AHD/W7
  probe n slender instrument for examining cavity AHD/W7
  probity n uprightness, adherence to highest ideals/principles AHD/W7
  proctor n procurator AHD/OED
  procurator n agent, manager of another's affairs AHD/CDC
  procure vb to obtain, acquire, get by special effort AHD
  prodigal adj rashly/wastefully extravagant AHD
  prodigality n quality of being prodigal AHD/CDC
  proglottid n bisexual segment of tapeworm AHD
  prone adj disposed, having tendency/inclination AHD/W7
  proof n cogency of evidence compelling acceptance of truth/fact AHD/W7
  proper adj fit, marked by rightness/suitability/appropriateness AHD/W7
  property n trait/quality peculiar/belonging to thing/individual AHD/W7
  propinquity n kinship, nearness of blood AHD/W7
  proprioception n unconscious perception of bodily movement/orientation via internal stimuli AHD
  proprioceptor n sensory receptor responding to internal stimuli AHD
  proprium n common predicable property of all AHD
  pros- pfx near, toward AHD/W7
  prosciutto n aged dry-cured spiced ham AHD
  prosopography n statistical study describing people/characters in context AHD
  prostyle adj having row of columns across front only AHD
  protein n complex amino acid combination AHD/W7
  Proterozoic adj re: geologic eon ca. 2,500-570 million years ago LRC
  prothallus n fern gametophyte AHD
  protist n unicellular/acellular organism: alga, fungus, bacterium, protozoan, or virus AHD/W7
  proto- pfx first TLL
  protoctist n unicellular eukaryotic organism AHD
  proton n atomic particle with positive charge AHD/W7
  protuberance n knob, bulge, swelling AHD
  protuberate vb to swell, bulge, be prominent AHD
  prove vb to experience AHD/W7
  provenance n source, origin AHD/W7
  provenience n source, origin AHD
  prow adj gallant, valiant AHD/W7
  prow n stem, bow of ship AHD/W7
  prowess n distinguished bravery AHD/W7
  proximate adj close, very near AHD/W7
  Purana prop.n ancient genre of post-Vedic Hindu/Jain texts LRC
  purchase vb.trans to gain, acquire AHD/W7
  rapprochement n establishment/state of cordial relations AHD/W7
  reciprocal adj opposite, inversely related AHD/W7
  reproach n cause/occasion of blame/disgrace/discredit AHD/W7
  reprove vb.trans to (administer) rebuke AHD/W7
  veer vb.trans to let/pay out (e.g. anchor rope/chain) AHD/W7
  veneer n thin sheet of material AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: fir/fer adv far ASD
  forma adj.sup first ASD
  forth/ford adv forth ASD
  furthor/furdur adv.comp further ASD
  prestere n priest ASD
Frisian: fier adv far ASD
  fort/ford adv forth ASD
Old Low Franconian: fruo adv early, in the morning KLW
Middle Dutch: verrompelen vb to frumple AHD
  vieren vb to veer, slacken W7
Dutch: praam n pram W7
  ver(re) adv far ASD
  voor prep for, before, on behalf of TLL
  voort adv forth ASD
  vorst n.masc prince ASD
  vrouw n wife, woman TLL
Old Saxon: fer adv far ASD
  fern adj old, ancient ASD
  formo adj first ASD
  forþ adv forth ASD
  fraho/froho/fro(io) n.masc lord, master ASD
  fram/vram prep from ASD
  furðor adv.comp further ASD
  furist adj.sup first RPN
  furisto n prince RPN
Old Low German: prestar n priest ASD
Middle Low German: pram n pram W7
  viren vb to veer W7
  vro adv early, in the morning SAO
Low German: fe(e)re adv afar ASD
  foorste n prince ASD
Old High German: fer(ro) adv far W7/ASD
  firni adj old, ancient ASD
  fram adv/prep forth, away; from W7/ASD
  Fria n Freya W7
  fro n.masc lord, master ASD
  frouwa n lady, mistress W7
  fruma n advantage W7
  frummen vb to further W7
  fruo adv early, in the morning KDW
  fur- pfx for- W7
  furdir adv.comp further ASD
  furist adj.sup first W7
  furthar adj.comp further W7
  priestar/prestar n priest ASD
Middle High German: vërre adv far ASD
  virne adj old, ancient ASD
  vort adv forth ASD
  vürder adv.comp further ASD
German: fern adv far ASD
  firn(e) adj old, ancient ASD
  fort adv forth ASD
  Frau tit/n.fem Mrs.; elder/married woman W7
  Fräulein tit/n.neut Fraulein; young woman TLL
  früh adv early, in the morning LRC
  Frühstück n breakfast TLL
  für prep for LRC
  fürder adv moreover ASD
  Furnier n.neut veneer W7
  furnieren vb to (apply) veneer W7
  Fürst n.masc prince ASD
  Prinz n prince TLL
  vor prep before, in front of TLL
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: forða, forðað vb to save LRC
  forn adj old, ancient LRC
  fram adv forward, on; away; out LRC
  framan adv forward, from the front side LRC
  framr adj foremost; excellent, outstanding LRC
  frá prep from, concerning LRC
  frest n.neut respite LRC
  Freyja prop.n Freya, a.k.a. Frigg W2I
  Freyr prop.n Frey W7
  fyrir prep before, in front of; against; for, because of LRC
  fyrr adv before; first; until LRC
  fyrstr adj.sup first LRC
  hús-frú n wife KNW
Icelandic: fjarri adv far off ASD
  forn adj old, ancient ASD
  fram adv forward ASD
  fra prep from ASD
  Freyr prop.n.masc Frey ASD
  frum- adj first ASD
  fyrstr adj first ASD
  prestr n priest ASD
  prim(i)/prima n prime, first hour ASD
  prýði n.fem pride; ornament ASD
Danish: fiern adv far ASD
  foran prep in front of TLL
  fordi conj because TLL
  fra prep from ASD
  frokost n brunch LRC
  först(e) adj first ASD
  før prep before TLL
  hustru n wife TLL
Swedish: därför conj because TLL
  fjerran adv far ASD
  for prep for, on behalf of TLL
  forn adj old, ancient ASD
  fram adv forth, forward ASD
  framför prep in front of TLL
  fro adv.obs early, in the morning SAO
  frukost n breakfast TLL
  från prep from ASD
  för prep for, on behalf of TLL
  före prep before TLL
  först(e) adj first ASD
  hustru n wife TLL
E-Germanic  
Gothic: fairneis adj old, ancient ASD
  faírra adj/prep far, distant; far from LRC
  faúr(a) prep for, before, by LRC
  fram prep/adv from, by, on account of RPN
  framis adv further, onward RPN
  fráuja n.wk.masc lord, master LRC
  frisahts n.str.fem image LRC
  fruma adj first, prior, former RPN
  frumabaúr adj first-born LRC
  frumists adj/n first, foremost; chief RPN
  frums n beginning RPN
Italic  
Umbrian: pernaiaf adv from in front RPN
  perne adv/prep before RPN
Old Latin: pri prep before W7
Latin: adprobare vb to approve, confirm, be good CDC
  approbo, approbare vb to approve W7
  arpennis n half acre AHD
  improbitas, improbitatis n.fem depravity, wickedness, dishonesty W7
  improbus adj wicked, dishonest W7
  para- pfx beside W7
  per adv/prep by, through, along, over RPN
  peri- pfx around W7
  porro adv far, forward ASD
  prae adv/prep before, in front of RPN
  praeter adv/prep past, before, beyond TLL
  primarius adj principal, of first rank W7
  primas n.fem leader W7
  primipara n.fem primipara W7
  primitivus adj original, primitive W7
  primitus adv originally W7
  primo adj.abl at first W7
  primoris, primoris, primore adj chieftain, leader LRC
  primus, prima, primum adj.sup first, foremost LRC
  princeps, principis n.masc prince, chief, first in rank LRC
  principalis adj of the prince W7
  principium n.neut beginning W7
  prior adj.comp former, superior W7
  priscus adj ancient W7
  pristinus adj former, primitive, precedent W7
  priusquam adv before LRC
  privatus, privata, privatum adj/vb.ptc private, individual LRC
  privo, privare vb to deprive, release W7
  privus adj/vb.ptc private W7
  pro adv/prep for, ahead, before, in front of RPN
  probabilis adj probable W7
  probitas, probitatis n.fem probity W7
  probo, probare vb to prove, examine W7
  probus adj/vb.ptc good, honest, proven W7
  procer, proceris n.masc nobleman LRC
  pronus adj bent forward, tending W7
  prope adj/adv/prep near LRC
  propinquitas, propinquitatis n.fem kinship, proximity W7
  propinquus adj near, akin W7
  proprietas, proprietatis n.fem property W7
  proprius adj own W7
  prora n.fem prow, front part of ship W7
  pros- pfx near, towards, (face to face) with W7
  proximatus vb.ptc approached, came near W7
  proximo, proximare vb to approach, come near W7
  proximus, proxima, proximum adj near, next to LRC
  reciprocus adj alternating, returning the same way W7
Vulgar Latin: repropio, repropiare vb to reproach W7
Late Latin: appropriatus vb.ptc appropriated, made one's own W7
  approprio, appropiare vb.trans to appropriate W7/CDC
  approximatus vb.ptc approximated, came closer W7
  approximo, approximare vb to approximate, come near W7
  presbyter n.masc presbyter, priest W7
  primarius adj basic, primary W7
  prior n.masc administrator W7
  proba n.fem proof W7
  prode n.neut advantage W7
  prot- pfx before W7
  reprobo, reprobare vb to disapprove, condemn W7
Middle Latin: appropiare vb to approach, come near CDC
Medieval Latin: deprivo, deprivare vb to deprive W7
  expropriatus vb.ptc expropriated W7
  exproprio, expropriare vb to expropriate W7
  primas, primatis n.fem archbishop W7
  privitas, privitatis n.fem privity W7
  proba n.fem examination W7
New Latin: prot- pfx primitive W7
Portuguese: approvar vb to approve CDC
  por prep through, by, for TLL
  porêm conj but TLL
  porque conj because TLL
  prova n proof TLL
  provar vb to prove TLL
Spanish: aprobar vb to approve CDC
  para prep for, as means of TLL
  pero conj but TLL
  por prep through, by, for TLL
  porque conj because TLL
  primavera n spring, springtime; primavera OED
  probar vb to prove TLL
  prueba n proof TLL
Old French: ap(p)rover/approuvir vb to approve W7/CDC
  aprochier vb to approach W7
  arpent n arpent AHD
  chacier vb to chase, pursue W7
  por- pfx for, forth W7
  pre- pfx before W7
  preuve n.fem proof W7
  primat n.masc archbishop, leader W7
  prince n.masc prince W7
  principal adj of the prince, primordial W7
  privé adj private W7
  privite n.fem privacy, familiarity W7
  pro- pfx for, before W7
  proesse n.fem prowess W7
  propre adj own W7
  prou adj/n.masc good, capable, valiant; advantage W7
  prover vb to prove W7
  pur- pfx for, forward W7
  purchacier vb to seek to obtain W7
  reproche n.masc blame W7
  reprochier vb to reproach W7
Anglo-French: emprouer vb to invest profitably W7
Middle French: approcher vb to approach W7
  fournir vb to complete, equip W7
  fourniss- stem to complete, equip W7
  fourniture n.fem furniture, equipment W7
  improbité n.fem dishonesty W7
  para- pfx beside W7
  pre- pfx before W7
  premier adj first, chief W7
  prime n.fem money given as a bonus W7
  prin prep first W7
  principe n.masc principle W7
  probable adj probable W7
  probité n.fem probity, honesty W7
  propreté n.fem property W7
  prou adv a lot W7
  proue n.fem prow, front part of ship W7
  rapprocher vb to set closer W7
  reproche n.masc blame W7
  reprover vb to reprove W7
French: approcher vb to approach CDC
  approuver vb to approve CDC
  arpent n arpent AHD
  fournir vb to supply W7
  par prep through, by means of TLL
  parmi prep among TLL
  pour prep for, as means of TLL
  premier adj first W7
  preuve n proof TLL
  protéine n.fem protein W7
  prouver vb to prove TLL
  rapprochement n.masc state/action of being/getting closer W7
  rapprocher vb to bring closer W7
Old Occitan: aprobar vb to approve CDC
  apropchar vb to approach CDC
Old Italian: barda n bard AHD
  prua n.fem prow, bow of ship W7
Italian: approcciare vb to approach CDC
  approvare vb to approve CDC
  per prep through, as means of TLL
  perchè conj because TLL
  prima adv before TLL
  primo adj first W7
  prosciutto n prosciutto AHD
  provare vb to prove TLL
  pruova n proof TLL
Baltic  
Lithuanian: per prep through LRC
  pìrmas, pirmà nbr.ord first LRC
  prie prep at, near, by RPN
  pries adv/prep against RPN
  prõ adv/prep through, past, by RPN
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: pri prep near; at the time of LRC
  pri'vu' adj first, primary LRC
  pri'veni'ci' adj first-born LRC
  pri'veni'ci' n.masc firstborn child LRC
  predu' prep before, in front of LRC
Albanian  
Albanian: para adv before LRC
  parë adj first LRC
  për prep for, about LRC
Hellenic  
Homeric Greek: présba n.fem age LRC
  présbus adj aged, honored, venerable LRC
  presbúteros adj.comp/n older, elder; priest LRC
Greek: émprosthen prep before, in front of LRC
  ósper pron.rel it LRC
  pará adv/prep beside; from, of LRC
  paraí adv/prep beside RPN
  páros adv/conj/prep before, until RPN
  pér adv although LRC
  per pcl indeed LRC
  péran/pérên adv/prep beyond, on the other side RPN
  peráô vb to pass across/through LRC
  perí prep around, about LRC
  perissos adj more than normal W7
  perpereúomai vb to boast LRC
  práxis n.fem action in real life LRC
  prássô/práttô vb to achieve, manage LRC
  présbus n.masc old man LRC
  pró adv/prep for, ahead, before LRC
  próka adv forthwith RPN
  prómos adj chief, first, foremost RPN
  prós adv/prep near, towards, (face to face) with LRC
  próteron adv earlier, before LRC
  próteros adj first, before, forward LRC
  protí adv/prep near, towards, (face to face) with RPN
  prôí adv early LRC
  proira n.fem prow, front part of ship W7
  prôtista adv first of all LRC
  protistos adj.sup first, primal W7
  prôton adv first LRC
  proton n.neut proton W7
  prôtos adj first, foremost LRC
  protos adj first W7
  ôsper adv/conj as LRC
Late Greek: proteios adj primary W7
Medieval Greek: perissodaktylos adj having more than normal number of fingers/toes W7
Anatolian  
Luwian: pa-ri-ya-an adv/prep beyond; exceedingly, especially RPN
  pár-ra-an adv/prep before, in front of RPN
Lycian: pri adv/prep forth; in front of RPN
  przze/i- adv/prep front, foremost RPN
Hittite: pa-ra-a adv forth RPN
  pí-ra-an adv forth, before RPN
Armenian  
Classical Armenian: araji adv before, earlier LRC
  araji prep before, in front of LRC
  arajin adj first LRC
  ar prep to, toward (a person); beside; in the time of; in addition to LRC
Iranian  
Old Persian: pariy adv/prep around, about RPN
Persian: pardah n packsaddle AHD
Avestan: pairi adv/prep around RPN
Indic  
Sanskrit: párah adj far, distant RPN
  pári adv/prep around RPN
  puráh adv/prep forward, before, in front of RPN
  purati vb to precede, go before RPN
  pura adv formerly W7
  purana adj ancient W7
  prá adv/prep before, in front of RPN
  pratarám adj.comp further RPN
  prati- pfx near, towards, against, in return W7
  práti adv/prep towards, near to, against RPN
  prathamá-h adj first, foremost RPN

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
abl=ablative (case)
adj=adjective
adv=adverb(ial)
comp=comparative
conj=conjunction
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
nbr=number
neut=neuter (gender)
obs=obsolete
ord=ordinal
pcl=particle
pfx=prefix
prep=preposition
pron=pronoun
prop=proper
ptc=participle
rel=relative
stem=stem
str=strong (inflection)
sup=superlative
tit=title
trans=transitive
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KLW=Gerhard Köbler: Altniederfränkisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed. (2003)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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