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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. per-, per-g-   'to hit, kill'

Semantic Fields: to Hit, Strike, Beat; to Kill


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: compressen vb to compress W7
  depressen vb to depress W7
  express adj express W7
  expressen vb to express W7
  impressen vb to impress W7
  oppressen vb to oppress W7
  preignant adj pregnant W7
  preinte n print W7
  presse n press W7
  pressen vb to press W7
  repressen vb to repress W7
  suppressen vb to suppress W7
English: appressed adj pressed close to/lying flat against (something) AHD/W7
  apres prep after AHD
  compress n folded pad/cloth to press upon body part AHD/W7
  compress vb to condense, press/squeeze together AHD/W7
  depress vb.trans to repress, subjugate AHD/W7
  espresso n coffee brewed by steam forced through powdered beans AHD/W7
  express adj explicit, directly/distinctly stated AHD/W7
  express vb.trans to depict, delineate AHD/W7
  impress vb to apply with pressure (to imprint) AHD/W7
  imprimatur n license to print/publish AHD/W7
  imprint n something (im)printed AHD/W7
  oppress vb.trans to suppress AHD/W7
  pregnant adj gravid, with child; cogent AHD/W7
  press n throng, crowd, crowded condition AHD/W7
  press vb to squeeze, act upon via steady force AHD/W7
  pressure n act of pressing, being pressed AHD
  print n impression, mark made by pressure AHD/W7
  repress vb to curb, check by pressure AHD/W7
  reprimand n severe/formal reproof/reproach AHD/W7
  suppress vb.trans to subdue, put down by force/authority AHD/W7
Latin: adpressus vb.ptc appressed CDC
  appressus vb.ptc (ap)pressed W7
  apprimo, apprimere vb to press to W7
  compressus vb.ptc compressed W7
  comprimo, comprimere vb to compress W7
  depressus vb.ptc pressed down W7
  deprimo, deprimere vb to press down W7
  espressus vb.ptc pressed out W7
  expressus vb.ptc pressed out W7
  exprimo, exprimere, expressi, expressum vb to express, press out LRC
  impressus vb.ptc pressed against W7
  imprimo, imprimere vb to imprint, press against W7
  oppressus vb.ptc oppressed W7
  opprimo, opprimere vb to oppress W7
  prelum n.neut press W7
  premo, premere, pressi, pressum vb to press, oppress LRC
  presso, pressare vb to press W7
  pressus vb.ptc pressed, compressed W7
  repressus vb.ptc repressed W7
  reprimendus vb.ptc reprimanded W7
  reprimo, reprimere, repressi, repressum vb to check, restrain, reprimand W7
  suppressus vb.ptc suppressed W7
  supprimo, supprimere vb to suppress W7
Late Latin: compresso, compressare vb to press hard/together W7
New Latin: imprimatur n.masc license to print/publish W7
  imprimo, imprimere vb to print W7
Old French: après prep apres AHD
  expres adj pressed out W7
  expresser vb to press out W7
  preindre vb to press W7
  preint vb.ptc printed W7
  preinte n.fem print, track W7
  presse n.fem press W7
  presser vb to press W7
Middle French: compresse n.fem compress W7
  compresser vb to compress W7
  depresser vb to depress, push down W7
  empreindre vb to imprint W7
  empreint vb.ptc with print, printed, full of W7
  empreinte n.fem print, trace W7
  exprès adv expressly, on purpose W7
  expresser vb to press out W7
  oppresser vb to oppress W7
  preignant vb.pres.ptc pregnant W7
  preindre vb to press W7
  presser vb to press W7
French: après prep apres TLL
  près adv next, besides TLL
  réprimande n.fem reprimand W7
Italian: expresso n.masc pressed-out coffee W7
  presso adv next, besides TLL
Russian: peret vb to press W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pres=present (tense)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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