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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: pi-lo-   'hair, pile, pilus'

Semantic Field: Hair


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: pluccian/ploccan vb.wk to pluck, tear W7/ASD
Middle English: catyrpel n caterpillar W7
  peluche n plush W7
  pile n pile, hair, plumage ODE
  piles piles W7
  pillage n pillage W7
  plucken vb to pluck W7
English: caterpillar n elongated wormlike larva of moth/butterfly AHD/W7
  depilate vb.trans to remove hair from AHD/W7
  horripilation n goosebumps, hair bristling from fear/cold AHD
  pelage n hairy covering of mammal AHD/W7
  pilar adj covered with hair, re: hair AHD
  pile n coat/surface of close fine furry hairs AHD/W7
  piles hemorrhoids AHD/W7
  pileus n umbrella-shaped fungal fruiting body AHD/W7
  piliferous adj bearing/producing hair AHD
  pillage n act of looting/plundering AHD/W7
  pilocarpine n alkaloid isolated from pilocarpus AHD/CDC
  pilocarpus n genus of polypetalous shrubs CDC
  pilose adj covered with soft hair AHD/W7
  pilus n hair, hairlike structure AHD
  pluck vb to pull off, pick out AHD/W7
  plush n fabric with long even pile AHD/W7
  poilu n French soldier AHD/W7
Middle Dutch: pijl n pile, fine hair ODE
Dutch: plukken vb to pluck ASD
Middle Low German: pile n downy plumage ODE
Middle High German: pflücken vb to pluck ASD
German: pflücken vb to pluck LRC
Icelandic: plokka/plukka vb to pluck ASD
Latin: depilatus vb.ptc depilated W7
  depilo, depilare vb to remove hair W7
  pila n.fem ball (to play with) W7
  pilleum n.neut felt cap W7
  pil(l)eus n.masc felt cap W7
  pilosus adj hairy W7
  pilus n.masc hair W7
New Latin: pileus n.masc fungal fruit W7
Portuguese: pelo n.masc hair ODE
Spanish: pelo n.masc hair ODE
Old French: poil n (type of) cloth, fabric ODE
Old North French: catepelose n.masc hairy cat W7
Anglo-French: pyle/peil n (type of) cloth, fabric ODE
Middle French: peille n.fem rag W7
  pelage n.masc fur W7
  pillage n.masc looting W7
  piller vb to plunder W7
  poil n.masc hair W7
  poilu adj hairy W7
French: pelage n.masc fur W7
  poilu adj hairy W7
Italian: pelo n.masc hair ODE
Greek: pîlos n.masc pile, mat; wool, hair LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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