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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: pip(p)-   'to peep, squeak'

Semantic Fields: Sound (n); Various Cries


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Scots Gaelic: piobaireachd n.fem pipe-music W7/GE
Old English: pipe/pipa n.fem pipe W7
Middle English: pepen vb to peep W7
  pigeon n pigeon W7
  pipe n pipe W7
English: fife n small transverse shrill-toned flute AHD/W7
  peep vb to cheep, chirp, utter shrill feeble sound W7
  pibroch n martial/mournful tune for Scottish bagpipe AHD/W7
  pigeon n bird with stout body/short legs AHD/W7
  pipe n tubular wind instrument AHD/W7
Dutch: pijp n pipe TLL
Old Low German: pipa n pipe ASD
Old High German: pfifa n pipe ASD
German: Pfeife n.fem pipe W7
Icelandic: pipa n pipe ASD
Danish: pibe n pipe TLL
Swedish: pipa n pipe TLL
Latin: pipo, pipare vb to peep W7
Vulgar Latin: pipa n.fem pipe W7
Late Latin: pipio, pipionis n.masc young bird W7
Middle French: pijon n.masc dove, pigeon W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GE=Colin Mark: The Gaelic-English Dictionary (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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