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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. plak-, plag-, also plek-, pleg-   'to hit, beat, fling'

Semantic Fields: to Hit, Strike, Beat; to Throw


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: apoplexie n apoplexy W7
  compleynen vb to complain W7
  flingen/flengen vb to fling W2I
  plage n plague W7
  plaint n plaint W7
English: apoplexy n stroke, sudden loss/diminution of motion/sensation/consciousness AHD/W7
  cataplexy n sudden loss of muscle control due to strong emotion AHD/W7
  complain vb.intrans to express pain/grief/discontent AHD/W7
  complaint n expression of pain/grief/dissatisfaction W9
  fling, flung vb.str to hurl, throw; rush/spring with haste/violence AHD/W2I
  paraplegia n lower-body paralysis AHD/W7
  plague n wound, blow; calamity, dire affliction AHD/W7
  plague vb to afflict; annoy TLL
  plaint n wail, lamentation AHD/W7
  plangent adj having loud reverberating sound AHD/W7
  plankton n plant/animal life drifting in water AHD/W7
  plectrum n small pick for stringed instrument AHD/W7
  plexor n small rubber-headed hammer AHD
Old High German: fluokhon vb to curse W7
German: Kataplexie n cataplexy W7
  Plankton n plankton W7
Old Norse: fla vb to flay W7
  flengja vb to whip W7
Danish: plage vb to plague LRC
Swedish: plåga vb to plague LRC
Latin: plaga n.fem plague, stroke W7
  plangens, plangentis adj/vb.ptc lamenting W7
  plango, plangere, planxi, planctum vb to beat, strike; lament, bewail W7
  plectrum n.neut plectrum W7
Vulgar Latin: complango, complangere vb to complain W7
Late Latin: apoplexia n.fem apoplexy W7
Medieval Latin: plagalis adj consistent in strikes W7
New Latin: paraplegia n.fem paraplegia W7
Portuguese: praga n wound TLL
Spanish: llaga n wound TLL
Old French: apoplexie n apoplexy AHD
Middle French: complaindre vb to complain W7
  plage n.fem blow W7
  plaint n.masc plaint, complaint W7
French: apoplexie n.fem apoplexy W7
  plaie n wound TLL
Italian: piaga n wound TLL
Old Church Slavonic: plakati, placo, placesi vb to weep, mourn LRC
Homeric Greek: plázô vb to strike, drive astray LRC
  plêssô vb to beat, strike LRC
Greek: apoplexia n.fem apoplexy W7
  apoplessein vb to cripple via stroke W7
  kataplexis n.fem cataplexy W7
  kataplessein vb to strike down, terrify W7
  paraplegie n.fem paraplegia W7
  plazesthai vb to drift, wander W7
  planktos adj drifting W7
  plektron n.neut plectrum W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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