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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: plat-, plad-, plet-, plot-, plut-   'flat, wide, broad; spread out'

Semantic Fields: Flat; Wide, Broad; to Strew, Spread Out


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: cland n.fem plant, offspring W7/IED
Scots Gaelic: clann n.fem clan, offspring W7/GE
Old English: flet(t) n.neut floor, ground underfoot IEW/ASD
  plante n.fem plant, shoot W7/ASD
  plantian vb to plant W7
Middle English: clan n clan W7
  flat adj flat W7
  flateren vb to flatter W7
  flet n flat, ground underfoot OED
  flounder n flounder W7
  place n place W7
  plaice n plaice W7
  plane n plane W7
  plantain n plantain W7
  plante n plant W7
  planten vb to plant W7
  plate n plate W7
  supplanten vb to supplant W7
  transplaunten vb to transplant W7
English: clan n Celtic households claiming patrilineal descent from common ancestor AHD/W7
  flan n custard dessert AHD
  flat adj having continuous horizontal surface AHD/W7
  flat n floor/story/apartment in building W7
  flatter vb to praise excessively AHD/W7
  flet n tree house in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  flounder n type of flatfish AHD/W7
  piazza n open square in Italian/European town AHD/W7
  place n way for transit/admission AHD/W7
  plaice n flatfish AHD/W7
  plan n drawing/diagram (on flat surface) AHD/W7
  plane n tree with palmately lobed leaves AHD/W7
  plant n young tree/vine/shrub/herb AHD/W7
  plant vb to put/set in ground for growth AHD/W7
  plantain n short-stemmed herb with elliptical leaves AHD/W7
  plantar adj re: sole of foot AHD/W7
  plate n thin flat piece of smooth material AHD/W7
  plateau n tableland, raised land area with level surface AHD/W7
  platina n (impure natural) platinum AHD
  platinum n heavy grayish white precious metal AHD/W7
  platitude n triteness, being dull/insipid AHD/W7
  platy n small stocky Mexican topminnow AHD/W7
  plaza n public square in city/town AHD/W7
  supplant vb.trans to supersede (esp. by force/treachery) AHD/W7
  transplant vb to lift/reset (a plant) in different soil/location AHD/W7
Scots English: flet(t) n house ASD
Old Frisian: flet n house ASD
Dutch: plaats n place, city TLL
Old Saxon: flet(ti) n.neut hall, (floor of) house ASD
Low German: flet n bedroom in upper floor of peasant's house ASD
Old High German: flaz adj flat W7
  pflanza n plant ASD
  pflanzon vb to plant ASD
Middle High German: vletze n.neut floor ASD
German: Flunder n.fem flounder LRC
  Pflanze n.fem plant LRC
  pflanzen vb to plant LRC
  Platz n plaza TLL
Old Norse: flatr adj flat W7
  flet n.neut boards of hall used for seating LRC
  flyþra n flounder W7
Old Icelandic: flatr adj flat, level RPN
Icelandic: flet n.neut house, set of rooms ASD
  planta n plant ASD
  planta vb to plant ASD
Danish: plads n plaza TLL
Swedish: flundra n plaice, flounder TLL
Latin: planta n.fem green twig/graft/cutting; sole of foot W7
  plantago, plantaginis n.fem type of weed W7
  plantaris adj re: sole of foot W7
  planto, plantare vb to plant W7
  planum n.neut flat ground W7
  planus adj flat, plain W7
  platanus n.fem platane, plane tree W7
  platea n.fem broad street W7
  supplanto, supplantare vb to overthrow by tripping up W7
Vulgar Latin: plattus adj broad, flat W7
Late Latin: planto, plantare vb to plant, fix in place W7
  platensis n.fem type of flatfish W7
  transplanto, transplantare vb to plant somewhere else W7
New Latin: platinum n.neut metallic element W7
  Platypoecilus n.masc (genus name) W7
Old Spanish: plata n.fem silver W7
Spanish: plata n.fem silver W7
  platina n.fem platinum W7
  plaza n.fem plaza W7
Old French: flaon n flan AHD
  plaïs n.masc plaice (flatfish) W7
  plantain n.masc type of weed W7
  plat adj flat W7
  plate n.fem plate, (piece of) silver W7
Middle French: place n.fem open space W7
  plat adj flat W7
  plat n.masc dish, plate W7
  plateau n.masc platter W7
  supplanter vb to supplant W7
French: flan n flan AHD
  plafond n ceiling LRC
  plan n.masc plan W7
  plane n.masc platane, plane tree W7
  planter vb to plant, fix in place W7
  plat adj dull, flat W7
  plateau n.masc platter W7
  platitude n.fem platitude W7
Italian: piazza n.fem market, piazza W7
Greek: platanos n.fem platane, plane tree W7
  plateîa n.fem open space LS
  platús adj flat, wide, broad RPN
Sanskrit: prthu adj broad W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GE=Colin Mark: The Gaelic-English Dictionary (2003)
IED=Patrick S. Dinneen: An Irish-English Dictionary (1927)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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