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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: plek-   'to ply, pleach, plait, weave'

Semantic Fields: to Fold; to Plait; to Weave


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fle(a)x n.neut flax W7/ASD
Middle English: ap(p)lien/ap(p)lyen vb to apply W7/CDC
  complice n complice W7
  displayen vb to display W7
  emploien vb to employ W7
  exploit n exploit W7
  flax n flax W7
  plechen vb to pleach W7
  pleit n pleat W7
  plete n plait W7
  pleten vb to pleat W7
  plien vb to ply, bend, fold W7
  plit n plight W7
  replien vb to reply W7
  splayen vb to splay W7
English: amplexicaul adj sessile with base/stipules clasping stem AHD/W7
  amplexus n amphibian pseudocopulation (male embraces female) AHD
  apply vb to put to use (for some practical purpose) AHD/W7
  complect vb to embrace, interweave, join by twining together AHD/CDC
  complex adj composite, composed of multiple parts AHD/W7
  complicate adj complex, intricate AHD/W7
  complice n associate AHD/W7
  deploy vb to extend (military unit) esp. in width AHD/W7
  display vb to spread/stretch out AHD/W7
  employ vb.trans to make use of AHD/W7
  explicate vb.trans to give detailed explanation of AHD/W7
  explicit adj with full clear expression AHD/W7
  exploit n act, deed AHD/W7
  flax n slender erect annual herb AHD/W7
  implicate vb.trans to entwine, fold/twist together AHD/W7
  implicit adj implied, able to be understood AHD/W7
  multiplex adj re: multiple parts/elements AHD
  perplexed adj puzzled, filled with confusion/bewilderment AHD
  plait n pleat AHD/W7
  plait vb to pleat, braid, weave W7
  pleach vb.trans to plait, interlace AHD/W7
  pleat n fold/crease in cloth doubled over AHD/W7
  pleat vb.trans to fold AHD/W7
  plecopteran n stonefly: primitive winged insect AHD
  plectognath n fish with bony plates/spines/ossicles AHD/W7
  plexus n network of interlacing nerves/blood vessels AHD/W7
  pliant adj pliable, easily bent/flexed AHD
  plica n fold, folded part AHD/W7
  plicate adj folded lengthwise (like fan) AHD/W7
  plight n state, condition AHD/W7
  plisse n textile with permanently puckered designs AHD/W7
  ply vb.trans to twist together AHD/W7
  replicate vb.trans to repeat, duplicate AHD/W7
  reply vb to respond in words/writing AHD/W7
  splay vb to expand, spread out AHD/W7
Old Frisian: flax n.neut flax ASD
Frisian: flægs n flax ASD
Dutch: vlas n.neut flax ASD
Low German: flass n.neut flax ASD
Old High German: flahs n.masc flax ASD
  flehtan vb to braid W7
Middle High German: vlahs n.masc flax ASD
German: Flachs n.masc flax ASD
Latin: amplector, amplecti vb.dep to entwine, embrace W7
  amplexus vb.ptc entwined, embraced W7
  applico, applicare vb to study, apply something to W7
  caulis n.masc stem, stalk, cabbage W7
  complector, complecti vb.dep to embrace, comprise (multiple objects) W7
  complexus vb.ptc embraced, comprised in W7
  complicatus vb.ptc folded together, confused W7
  complico, complicare vb to fold together, confuse W7
  displico, displicare vb to scatter W7
  explicatus vb.ptc unfolded, explained W7
  explicitus vb.ptc deployed, explained W7
  explico, explicare vb to unfold, explain W7
  implicatus vb.ptc enfolded, entangled W7
  implicitus vb.ptc enfolded, entangled W7
  implico, implicare, implicavi, implicatum vb to enfold, cling to W7
  implico, implicare, implicui, implicitum vb to enfold, entangle W7
  plecto, plectere vb to braid, twine, weave W7
  plexus n.masc braid, network W7
  plexus vb.ptc involved, threaded W7
  plicatus vb.ptc folded W7
  plico, plicare, plicavi, plicatum vb to fold (together) W7
  plico, plicare, plicui, plicitum vb to fold (together) W7
  replico, replicare vb to fold back, turn over W7
Vulgar Latin: plictus n.masc fold W7
  plictus vb.ptc folded W7
Late Latin: complex adj complex, manifold W7
  replicatus vb.ptc replicated W7
  replico, replicare vb to replicate W7
Medieval Latin: explicitus vb.ptc unfolded, explained W7
  plica n.fem fold (in garment) W7
New Latin: amplexicaulis adj with entwined stems W7
  plexus n.masc network of interwoven blood vessels W7
Portuguese: applicar vb to apply CDC
Spanish: aplicar vb to apply CDC
Old French: aplier vb to apply CDC
  exploit n.masc exploit, noble deed W7
Old North French: plechier vb to plait, braid, interlace W7
Anglo-French: despleier vb to display W7
  plit n.masc pleat W7
Middle French: aplier vb to apply W7
  complice adj accomplice W7
  emploier vb to employ, involve W7
  pleit vb.ptc pleated W7
  pli n.masc pleat W7
  plier vb to fold, bend W7
  plisser vb to pleat, wrinkle W7
  replier vb to pleat again W7
French: appliquer vb to apply CDC
  déployer vb to deploy W7
  explicite adj explicit W7
  plissé vb.ptc creased, wrinkled, pleated W7
  plisser vb to pleat, crease, wrinkle W7
Italian: applicare vb to apply CDC
Greek: gnathos n.fem jaw W7
  plekein vb to plait, braid, weave W7
  plektos adj plaited, twisted, woven W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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