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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: pleu-   'to flee, fly, run; flow, swim'

Semantic Fields: to Fly; to Run; to Flow; to Swim


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: flegan vb to put to flight W7
  fleogan, fleag, flugon, flogen vb.str.II to flee, fly LRC
  fleoge n.fem fly W7
  fleon/flion vb.str to flee, put to flight W7/ASD
  fleot/fliet n.masc where vessels float: river, estuary W7/ASD
  fleotan vb.str to float W7/ASD
  fliogan vb.str.II to flee, fly ASD
  flod n.masc/neut flood W7/ASD
  flota n.masc fleet, ship, vessel W7
  floterian/flotorian vb.wk to float, fly, flutter W7/ASD
  flotian vb.wk to float W7/ASD
  flowan vb.str to flow W7/ASD
  -flycge sfx fledge W7
  flyht/fliht n.masc flight W7/ASD
  fugel/fugol/fugul n.masc fowl ASD
Middle English: flayen vb to frighten W7
  flegge adj able to fly W7
  flen vb to flee W7
  flete n fleet W7
  fleten vb to fleet W7
  flie n fly W7
  flien vb to fly W7
  flight n flight W7
  fliht n flight W7
  flitten vb to flit W7
  flood n flood W7
  flote n float, boat W7
  floteren vb to float, flutter W7
  flowen vb to flow W7
  flue n flue AHD
  fluht n flight W7
  foul n fowl W7
  plover n plover W7
  pluvyous adj pluvious W7
English: fledge vb to acquire feathers necessary for flight AHD/W7
  flee, fled vb.str to fly, run away from evil/danger AHD/W7
  fleet n creek, shallow inlet AHD/W7
  fleet vb to float AHD/W7
  flight n act/instance of passing through air on wings AHD/W7
  flight n act/instance of fleeing/running away AHD/W7
  flit vb.intrans to go quickly/abruptly from place to place AHD/W7
  float n act/instance of floating; thing that floats AHD/W7
  Flói prop.n dwarf in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  flood n rising/overflowing of water (esp. on normally dry land) AHD/W7
  flotilla n fleet of ships AHD/W7
  flotsam n floating wreckage of ship/cargo AHD/W7
  flow vb to move/issue in stream AHD/W7
  flue n fishing net AHD
  flugelhorn n bugle with valves AHD
  fluster vb to make tipsy AHD/W7
  flutter vb to flap wings rapidly AHD/W7
  fly, flew, flown vb to move in/pass through air using wings AHD/W7
  fly n winged insect AHD/W7
  fowl n bird AHD/W7
  Greyflood prop.n river of Eriador in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  pleuston n macroscopic vegetation floating in mats on/near fresh water surface AHD/W7
  plover n shore-dwelling bird with short hard-tipped bill AHD/W7
  Pluto prop.n (planet named for) god of underworld (Greek/Roman mythology) LRC
  plutocracy n government by the wealthy AHD/W7
  plutography n media describing lives of rich/famous people AHD
  pluvial adj re: rain AHD/W7
  pluvious adj rainy, re: rain AHD/W7
  pyelitis n acute inflammation of kidney pelvis AHD
Scots English: fleit/flete vb to float, swim ASD
  fley vb.trans to frighten W7
  flocht n flight ASD
  flote n fleet ASD
Old Frisian: flecht n.fem flight ASD
  flet n.neut river ASD
  flia vb to flee, put to flight ASD
  fliaga vb to flee, fly ASD
  fliata vb to float, swim ASD
  flo(e)d n.neut flood ASD
  fugel n fowl ASD
Frisian: flan vb to flee, put to flight ASD
  flechte n flight ASD
  flega vb to flee, fly ASD
  floede n flood ASD
  foeggel/fugil n fowl ASD
Middle Dutch: vluuwe n flue AHD
Dutch: fleugel n wing TLL
  paraplu n umbrella TLL
  vlieden vb to flee, put to flight ASD
  vlieg n.fem fly ASD
  vliegen vb to flee, fly ASD
  vliet n.masc rivulet, brook ASD
  vlieten vb to float, swim ASD
  vloed n.masc flood ASD
  vloeien vb to flow, flood ASD
  vloot n.fem fleet ASD
  vlugt n.fem flight ASD
  vogel n.masc fowl ASD
Old Saxon: fliohan vb to flee, put to flight ASD
  fliotan vb to float, swim ASD
  fliuga n.fem fly ASD
  flod/fluod n.masc/fem/neut flood ASD
  fluht n.fem flight ASD
  fluot n.fem flood ASD
  fugal n fowl ASD
Low German: fleet n small river ASD
  flege n.fem fly ASD
  flegen vb to flee, fly ASD
  fleten vb to float, swim ASD
  floien/flojen vb to flow, flood ASD
  flood n.fem flood ASD
  flugt n.fem flight ASD
  flugten vb to flee, put to flight ASD
  vagel n.masc fowl ASD
Old High German: flawjai/flewen vb to flow, flood ASD
  fleoga/fliega/fliuga n.fem fly ASD
  fleogan/fliugan vb to flee, fly ASD
  fleozan/fliuzan vb to float, swim ASD
  flioga n fly W7
  fliogan vb to fly W7
  fliohan vb to flee W7
  fliozzan vb to float W7
  fliuhan vb to flee, put to flight ASD
  flouwen vb to rinse, wash W7
  floz n raft, stream W7
  flucki adj able to fly W7
  fluht n.fem flight W7/ASD
  fluot/flot n.fem flood, stream W7/ASD
  fluz n.masc river ASD
  fogal/fugal n.masc fowl ASD
Middle High German: vlæ(j)en vb to flow, flood ASD
  vliege n.fem fly ASD
  vliegen vb to flee, fly ASD
  vliehen vb to flee, put to flight ASD
  vliez n.masc/neut rivulet ASD
  vliuzen vb to float, swim ASD
  vluht n.fem flight ASD
  vluot n.masc/fem flood ASD
  vogel n.masc fowl ASD
German: Fliege n.fem fly ASD
  fliegen vb to flee, fly ASD
  fliehen vb to flee, put to flight ASD
  fliessen vb.str to float, swim ASD
  Flosse n.fem fin TLL
  Flotte n.fem fleet ASD
  Flucht n.fem flight ASD
  Flügel n.masc wing TLL
  Flügelhorn n.neut trumpet, flugelhorn LRC
  Fluß n.masc stream, river, running water ASD
  Fluth n.fem flood ASD
  Vogel n.masc fowl LRC
Old Norse: floti n.masc fleet, ship ASD
  flóð n.neut flood LRC
  flytjask vb to move W7
  fugl n.masc fowl LRC
Old Icelandic: flói n.masc fen, moor, marsh; firth, bay IEW/ICE
Icelandic: flaustur vb to hurry W7
  fljot n.neut river ASD
  fljota vb to float, swim ASD
  fljuga vb to flee, fly ASD
  floa vb to flow, flood ASD
  floð n.neut inundation, deluge ASD
  fluga n.fem fly ASD
  flýja vb to flee, put to flight ASD
  fogl/fugl n.masc fowl ASD
Danish: flaade n.masc/fem fleet ASD
  flod n.masc/fem flood ASD
  flue n.masc/fem fly ASD
  flugt n.masc/fem flight ASD
  flyde vb to float, swim ASD
  flye vb to flee, put to flight ASD
  flyve vb to flee, fly ASD
  fugl n.masc/fem fowl ASD
  paraply n umbrella TLL
Swedish: flod n.masc flood, river ASD
  flotta n.fem fleet ASD
  fluga n.fem fly ASD
  fly vb to flee, put to flight ASD
  flyga vb to flee, fly ASD
  flykt n.masc flight ASD
  flyta vb to float, swim ASD
  fågel n.masc fowl ASD
  paraply n umbrella TLL
Gothic: fláutjan vb.wk.I to be pretentious LRC
  flodus n.fem flood, stream, river ASD
  fugls n.str.masc fowl LRC
  þliuhan vb to flee, put to flight ASD
Latin: fluvius, fluvii n.masc rain, stream, river LRC
  pluo, pluere vb to rain W7
  Pluto, Plutonis prop.n.masc Pluto: god of the underworld W7
  pluvia n.fem rain W7
  pluvialis adj re: rain W7
  pluvi(os)us adj rainy W7
Vulgar Latin: pluviarius adj re: rain W7
Portuguese: chover vb to rain TLL
Spanish: flota n.fem fleet W7
  flotilla n.fem.dim small fleet W7
  llover vb to rain TLL
Old French: flote n.fem fleet W7
Anglo-French: floteson n.masc flotsam W7
Middle French: plover n.masc plover W7
French: parapluie n.masc umbrella LRC
  pleuvoir vb to rain TLL
  pluie n.fem rain, shower LRC
Italian: piovere vb to rain TLL
Lithuanian: pláju vb to wash LRC
Old Church Slavonic: pluti vb to flow LRC
Homeric Greek: pléô vb to sail LRC
  plôô vb to swim, float LRC
Greek: planktos adj drifting W7
  ploîon n.neut ship, vessel LRC
  plouto-krâtía n.fem plutocracy, power of wealth LRC
  ploûtos n.masc wealth, riches LRC
  Ploútôn prop.n.masc Pluto: god of the underworld LRC
Armenian: luanam vb to wash LRC
Avestan: fravayoit vb to swim LRC
Sanskrit: plávate vb to float, swim, fly LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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