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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: reuu- : ru-   'to ream, open; wide, roomy'

Semantic Fields: to Open; Wide, Broad


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: reman vb to ream W7
  rum adj roomy LRC
  rum n.masc room; time ASD
  ryman vb.wk to make room ASD
Middle English: remen vb to open up W7
  room n room W7
  rural adj rural W7
  rustik adj rustic W7
English: lebensraum n lit. living space AHD/W7
  ream vb.trans to countersink, widen opening of AHD/W7
  room n space, unoccupied area AHD/W7
  roomy adj open, spacious LRC
  rummage n thorough search AHD/W7
  rural adj re: country (life/people), agriculture AHD/W7
  rustic adj rural, re: countryside AHD/W7
Old Frisian: rema vb to make room ASD
  rum adj roomy ASD
Old Saxon: rum n room ASD
  rumian vb to make room ASD
Old High German: rum n room W7
  rumi adj roomy ASD
  rumman vb to make room ASD
German: Lebensraum n.masc lebensraum W7
  Raum n.masc room, space W7
  räumen vb to vacate, make room LRC
Old Norse: rúm n.neut room; seat, bed LRC
Icelandic: rumr adj roomy ASD
  ryma vb to make room; quit, leave ASD
Swedish: rum n room TLL
Gothic: rums adj roomy ASD
  rums n.str.masc room LRC
Latin: ruralis adj rural W7
  rus, ruris n.neut countryside, open land W7
  rusticus adj rustic W7
Middle French: arrimage n.masc packing/fastening tight W7
  rural adj rural W7
  rustique adj rustic W7
French: rue n street TLL


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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