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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: sa-, su-   'enough, satiate, sufficient'

Semantic Field: Enough


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: sadian vb to sate AHD
  sæd adj sated; weary W7
Middle English: sad adj sad W7
English: assai adv very AHD/W7
  asset n property of deceased subject to seizure for debt payment AHD/W7
  hadron n subatomic particle subject to strong force AHD
  sad adj downcast, affected with/expressive of grief/unhappiness AHD/W7
  sate vb to fill, glut, satiate AHD
  satiate adj sated, satiated W7
  satiate vb.trans to satisfy fully AHD/W7
  satiety n surfeit, fullness AHD/W7
  satire n literary work holding up vices/follies to scorn/ridicule AHD/W7
  saturate vb.trans to surfeit, cloy with overabundance AHD/W7
Old Saxon: sad adj sated ASD
Old Low German: sad adj sated ASD
Old High German: sat adj sated W7
  saton vb to sate, satisfy ASD
German: gesättigt adj sated LRC
  satt adj full LRC
Icelandic: saðr/saddr adj sated ASD
  seðja vb to sate, satisfy ASD
Gothic: saþs adj sated ASD
Latin: satiatus vb.ptc sated W7
  satietas, satietatis n.fem satiety W7
  satio, satiare vb to sate, be full, have enough W7
  satira n.fem medley, mixed poetic genre W7
  satis adv enough, adequately, sufficiently LRC
  satur adj sated W7
  satura n.fem medley, mixed poetic genre W7
  saturatus vb.ptc saturated W7
  saturo, saturare vb to saturate W7
Middle Latin: satis adv enough CDC
Portuguese: assaz/assas n assets CDC
Old Spanish: asaz n assets CDC
Old French: as(s)ez/as(s)et n asset(s) CDC
  assez adv enough W7
Anglo-French: as(s)etz n.masc property sufficient to pay debts/legacies W7/CDC
Middle French: satieté n.fem satiety W7
  satire n.fem satire, mocking W7
French: assez n assets CDC
Old Occitan: assatz n assets CDC
Italian: assai adv (very) much W7/CID
  assai n assets CDC
Greek: adrós adj thick, strong, full-grown AHD/LS


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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