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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: sag-   'to seek, track, trail'

Semantic Field: to Pursue


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: saigid vb to seek out, approach, attack RPN
Old English: forsacan vb.str to forsake W7/ASD
  sacan, soc, socon, sacen vb.str to fight, contend; sue, blame, accuse ASD
  sacu n.fem sake; strife, dispute; guilt, lawsuit ASD
  sec(e)an, sohte, soht vb.wk.I to seek, investigate RPN/ASD
  socn n.fem inquiry, investigation RPN/ASD
Middle English: forsaken vb to forsake W7
  presage n presage W7
  ransaken vb to ransack W7
  sake n sake W7
  seken vb to seek W7
  soc/soke n soke W7
English: exegesis n explanation/critical interpretation of text AHD/W7
  forsake, forsook, forsaken vb.str.trans to renounce, give up AHD/W7
  Forsaken prop.n inn east of Bree in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  hegemony n preponderant influence/authority AHD/W7
  presage n omen, something that portends/foreshadows future event AHD/W7
  ramshackle adj rickety, poorly constructed, near disintegration AHD
  ransack vb.trans to search thoroughly AHD/W7
  sagacious adj keen in sense perception AHD/W7
  sake n end, purpose AHD/W7
  seek, sought vb to look/search for, try to find AHD/OED
  soke n jurisdiction over people/territory AHD/W7
Old Frisian: sake/seke n sake, cause, ground, reason ASD
  seka vb to seek ASD
Old Saxon: saka n sake, cause, ground, reason ASD
  sakan vb to blame, rebuke ASD
  sokian vb to seek ASD
Old Low German: saca n sake, cause, ground, reason ASD
  suocan vb to seek ASD
Old High German: sahha n sake, suit, cause, ground, reason ASD
  sahhan vb to blame, rebuke, dispute ASD
  sohni n search, inquiry ASD
  suohhan/suohhen vb to seek RPN/W7
German: Sache n.fem sake, cause, object LRC
  suchen vb to seek LRC
Old Norse: rannsaka vb to ransack, plunder W7
  -saka vb.sfx to seek W7
  sætt n.fem reconciliation LRC
  sætta vb to reconcile LRC
  sok n.fem sake, cause, reason; lawsuit, dispute LRC
  soekja vb to seek, fetch; visit; proceed LRC
Icelandic: saka vb.wk to fight, blame, accuse ASD
  sókn n attack, prosecution; parish, assemblage of people ASD
Gothic: gasakan vb.str.VI to rebuke, reprove LRC
  sakan vb to strive, rebuke ASD
  sakjo n strife ASD
  sokareis n investigator, disputer RPN
  sokeins n investigation RPN
  sokjan vb to seek, desire; dispute RPN
  sokns n search, inquiry RPN
Latin: praesagio, praesagire vb to forebode W7
  praesagium n.neut omen W7
  saga n wise woman, fortune-teller RPN
  sagax, sagacis adj keen, sagacious LRC
  sagio, sagire vb to feel keenly, perceive quickly RPN
  sagus adj prophetic RPN
Medieval Latin: soca n.fem inquiry, jurisdiction W7
New Latin: exegesis n.fem exegesis, interpretation W7
Greek: exegeisthai vb to explain, interpret W7
  exegesis n.fem exegesis W7
  hegeisthai vb to lead W7
  êgemoneúô vb to govern LRC
  hegemonia n.fem leadership of one W7
  êgemôn n.masc leader LRC
  hegemon n.masc leader W7
  êgéomai vb.dep to lead, rule, regard LRC
  hedeisthai vb to know W7
Hittite: sagais n sign, omen RPN
  sakiya- vb to declare, give a sign RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
VI=class 6
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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