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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: sai-   'pain, illness; sore'

Semantic Field: Pain, Suffering


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English:  n.masc/fem sea, lake, water ASD
  sæ-war n seaware, seaweed ASD
  sar adj/n.neut sore; sorrow, suffering W7/ASD
  sarig adj sorry ASD
Middle English: sæ/se(e) n sea CDC
  sor adj sore W7
  sory adj sorry W7
English: sea n large body of salt water W7
  seaware n sea wrack used like manure AHD/W7
  seaweed n marine algae AHD
  sore adj painful, causing pain/distress AHD/W7
  sore n sore spot on body W7
  sorry adj feeling sorrow/regret/penitence AHD/W7
Old Frisian: se n.masc/fem sea, lake ASD/CDC
  ser n sore, ache, pain; sorrow ASD
Middle Dutch: see n.masc/fem sea, lake CDC
Dutch: zee n.masc/fem sea, lake CDC
Old Saxon: seo/se(u) n.masc sea, lake ASD/CDC
  ser n sore, ache, pain; sorrow ASD
  serag adj sorry, bitter ASD
Old Low German: ser n sore, ache, pain; sorrow ASD
Middle Low German: se n.masc/fem sea, lake CDC
Low German: see n.masc/fem sea, lake CDC
Old High German: seo/se(u) n.masc/fem sea, lake ASD/CDC
  ser n sore, ache, pain; sorrow W7
  serag adj sorry, bitter ASD
Middle High German: se n.masc/fem sea, lake CDC
German: See n.fem sea LRC
  See n.masc lake LRC
Old Norse: sár n.neut sore, wound LRC
Icelandic: sær/sjar/sjor n sea ASD
Danish: saar n sore, wound TLL
   n sea, lake TLL
Swedish: sjö n sea, lake TLL
  sår n sore, wound TLL
Gothic: sair n sore, ache, pain; sorrow ASD
  saiws n sea ASD
Latin: saevus, saeva, saevum adj cruel, fierce LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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