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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: sed-   'to sit, set, settle'

Semantic Field: to Sit

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: síde n fairy AHD
  suide n soot W7
  tánaise n tanist AHD
Irish: bean-sidhe n banshee CDC
  sid n fairy abode W2I
  side n fairy folk W2I
  sídhe n fairy AHD
  tánaiste n tanist, second AHD
Gaelic: b(e)an-sith n.fem banshee W7/CDC
  sith n fairy W2I
English  
Old English: besettan vb to beset AHD
  cot-sæta n.masc cottager, cottage inhabitant AHD/ASD
  land-sæta n.masc colonist, one settled in a country ASD
  medu-setl n.neut lit. mead-seat LRC
  sadol n.masc saddle W7
  sæta n.masc dweller, resident, inhabitant AHD/ASD
  se(o)tl/sedl/seðl/seatl n.neut seat, settle W7/ASD
  settan, sette, seted/set(t) vb.wk to set W7
  sittan, sæt, sæton, seten vb.str to sit W7/ASD
  sot n.neut soot W7
Middle English: acceden vb to accede W7
  access n access W7
  ancestre/auncestre n ancestor W7/AHD
  assessen vb to assess W7
  as(s)ise/assize/assys n assize W7/CDC
  bisetten vb to beset AHD
  cesen vb to cease W7
  cession n cession W7
  chaiere n chair W7
  cotsete n cottage dweller AHD
  deces n decease W7
  exceden vb to exceed W7
  eyas n eyas W7
  incessaunt adj incessant W7
  necessarie adj necessary W7
  neias n eyas W7
  nest n nest W7
  nocke n nock, notched end W7
  nyke n nick, notch W7
  pariode n period W7
  possessen vb to possess W7
  preceden vb to precede W7
  predecessour n predecessor W7
  proceden vb to proceed W7
  residen vb to reside W7
  sadel n saddle W7
  se n see W7
  session n session W7
  sete n seat W7
  setten vb to set W7
  settle n settle W7
  settlen vb to seat, bring/come to rest W7
  sewer n sewer W7
  sitten vb to sit W7
  soil n soil W7
  soot n soot W7
  subsidy n subsidy W7
  succeden vb to succeed W7
  surcesen vb to surcease W7
  sursesen vb to surcease W7
English: abscess n collection of pus in inflamed tissue AHD/W7
  accede vb.intrans to approach AHD/W7
  access n onset, outburst, fit of intense feeling AHD/W7
  ancestor n person from whom one is descended AHD/W7
  anode n positive terminal of electrolytic cell AHD/W7
  antecede vb.trans to precede AHD/W7
  assess vb.trans to set rate/amount (e.g. of tax) AHD/W7
  assiduous adj steadily attentive AHD/W7
  assize n ordinance, enactment made by legislative assembly AHD/W7
  babysit, babysat vb.str.intrans to care for children W7
  banshee n female spirit whose wailing warns family of approaching death (Gaelic folklore) AHD/W7
  beset, beset vb.irr.trans to surround, encircle, set about with AHD/OED
  cathedra n bishop's official throne AHD/W7
  cathedral n church containing cathedra W7
  cathode n negative terminal of electrolytic cell AHD/W7
  cease vb to terminate, bring to end AHD/W7
  cede vb.trans to yield/grant (typically by treaty) AHD/W7
  cession n concession, yielding to another AHD/W7
  chair n seat (for one person) with four legs and back AHD/W7
  concede vb to grant as right/privilege AHD/W7
  cosset n pet (lamb) AHD
  cosset vb to pamper AHD
  decease n death, departure from life AHD/W7
  dissident adj disaffected, differing with group/opinion AHD/W7
  edaphic adj re: soil AHD/W7
  ephedrine n crystalline alkaloid extracted from plants AHD/W7
  episode n unit of action in dramatic/literary work AHD/W7
  ersatz adj synthetic, substitute AHD/W7
  exceed vb to extend outside AHD/W7
  eyas n unfledged bird, nestling hawk AHD/W7
  -hedron n.sfx crystal/geometric figure having (specified) form/number of surfaces AHD/W7
  icosahedron n polyhedron with 20 faces AHD/W7
  incessant adj unceasing, continuing/following without interruption AHD/W7
  insessorial adj re: perching AHD/W7
  insidious adj treacherous, awaiting chance to entrap AHD/W7
  intercede vb.intrans to mediate, act with view to reconciling differences between parties AHD/W7
  isopiestic adj isobaric, re: equal pressure AHD/W7
  method n process/procedure for accomplishing something AHD/W7
  necessary adj inescapable, of inevitable nature AHD/W7
  nest n bed/receptacle prepared by bird for eggs/young AHD/W7
  nest vb to build/occupy a nest W7
  niche n recess in wall (esp. for statue) AHD/W7
  nick n slit, notch AHD/W7
  nide n nest/brood of pheasants AHD
  nidicolous adj reared in nest AHD/W7
  nidifugous adj leaving nest soon after hatching AHD/W7
  nidify vb to build a nest AHD
  nidus n nest/breeding place AHD/W7
  obsess vb.trans to beset, harass AHD/W7
  octahedron n solid with 8 plane faces W7
  -ode n.sfx way, path AHD
  odograph n instrument for recording course/distance traveled AHD
  odometer n instrument for measuring distance traversed AHD/W7
  period n sentence, utterance from full stop to stop AHD/W7
  physostomous adj with connecting tube between air bladder and alimentary canal AHD
  piezo- pfx pressure AHD/W7
  possess vb.trans to own/have as property AHD/W7
  precede vb to surpass in rank/dignity/importance AHD/W7
  predecessor n one that precedes AHD/W7
  preside vb.intrans to occupy place/position of authority AHD/W7
  proceed vb.intrans to issue, come forth from source AHD/W7
  proctodeum n inward fold on embryonic ectoderm that develops into anal passage AHD
  recede vb.intrans to withdraw, move back/away AHD/W7
  reside vb.intrans to be incumbent in office/benefice AHD/W7
  retrocede vb.intrans to recede, go back AHD/W7
  saddle n padded/leather-covered seat for (horseback) rider AHD/W7
  seance n sitting, session AHD/W7
  seat n chair, sitting place AHD/W7
  secede vb.intrans to withdraw from communion/organization AHD/W7
  sedate adj unruffled, keeping quiet steady pace/attitude AHD/W7
  sedentary adj settled, not migratory AHD/W7
  sederunt n prolonged sitting (e.g. for discussion) AHD/W7
  sedile, sedilia n seat for clergy near chancel AHD/CDC
  sediment n dregs, matter settled to bottom of liquid AHD/W7
  see n cathedra AHD/W7
  sessile adj attached directly by base (not raised on stalk/peduncle) AHD/W7
  session n meeting(s) of group for transaction of business AHD/W7
  set, set vb.irr to put, place, cause to sit AHD/W7
  settle n wooden bench with arms/high solid back/enclosed foundation AHD/W7
  settle vb to put/fix so as to stay AHD/W7
  settlement n act/process of settling IEW/W7
  sewer n medieval household table officer AHD/W7
  shee/sidhe n fairy fort/abode W2I
  siege n.obs throne, seat of distinction AHD/W7
  sit, sat vb.str to rest upon buttocks/haunches AHD/W7
  sitz adj/n seated; sitting AHD
  sitzmark n depression left in snow by skier falling backward AHD/W7
  soil n earth, firm land AHD/W7
  soot n black ash/powder formed by combustion AHD/W7
  stomodaeum n anterior ectodermal part of alimentary tract/canal AHD/W7
  subside vb.intrans to settle, sink/fall to bottom AHD/W7
  subsidy n gift/grant of money AHD/W7
  succeed vb to come after another in (possession of) estate AHD/W7
  supersede vb.trans to defer, postpone, omit, discontinue AHD/W7
  surcease vb to desist from action AHD/W7
  synizesis n uniting (in pronunciation) adjacent vowels to form one syllable AHD/W7
  synod n council AHD/W7
  tanist n ancient Celtic chief or elected heir apparent AHD/CDC
  tetrahedron n polyhedron of four faces AHD/W7
  trisoctahedron n regular solid with 24 congruent faces AHD/W7
  Upanishad prop.n collection of Vedic religious/philosophical texts (Hinduism) LRC
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: sedel n seat, settle ASD
  setta vb to set ASD
  sibbe adj related ASD
  sitta vb to sit ASD
Dutch: kathedraal n cathedral TLL
Old Saxon: sedel n seat, settle ASD
  settian vb to set ASD
  sittian vb to sit ASD
Old Low German: land-setio n colonist, one settled in a country ASD
Old High German: nest n nest W7
  satal/satul n.masc saddle ASD/W7
  sed(h)al/sethal n throne, residence ASD
  sezzal n seat W7
  sezzan/sezzen vb to set ASD/W7
  sizzan/sizzen vb to sit ASD/W7
German: Ersatz n.masc substitute, replacement W7
  Kathedrale n cathedral TLL
  Nest n.neut nest LRC
  Sattel n.masc saddle LRC
  setzen vb to set LRC
  Sitz n.masc seat LRC
  sitzen vb to sit W7
  Sitzmarke n.fem sitzmark, lit. sitting-mark W7
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: set n.neut seat; raised floor along sides of hall LRC
  setja vb to set, seat LRC
  sæti n seat W7
Icelandic: setja vb to set ASD
  sitja vb to sit ASD
  sót n.neut soot ASD
  söðull n.masc saddle ASD
Danish: katedral n cathedral TLL
Swedish: besättning n crew TLL
  katedral n cathedral TLL
E-Germanic  
Gothic: satjan vb to set ASD
  sitan vb.str.V to sit LRC
  sitls n.masc seat, throne, nest ASD
  un-sibis adj impious ASD
Italic  
Latin: abscedo, abscedere vb to go away W7
  abscessus n.masc act of going away W7
  abscessus vb.ptc gone away W7
  accedo, accedere vb to approach, go to, be added W7
  accessus n.masc approach W7
  accessus vb.ptc approached W7
  antecedo, antecedere vb to go before W7
  antecessor n.masc one that goes before W7
  antecessus vb.ptc one who came before W7
  assideo, assidere vb to sit by/near, assist in office of judge W7
  assido, assidere vb to sit down, take a seat W7
  assiduus adj continuous W7
  cathedra n.fem seat, local seat of the Church W7
  cedo, cedere, cessi, cessum vb to go, cede, depart, withdraw LRC
  cessans, cessantis vb.ptc stopping W7
  cessio, cessionis n.fem giving up W7
  cesso, cessare vb to stop, delay W7
  cessus vb.ptc given up W7
  cis prep on this side W7
  concedo, concedere vb to yield, concede W7
  decedo, decedere vb to die, depart, withdraw W7
  decessor n.masc retiring governor W7
  decessus n.masc death, departure W7
  dissidens, dissidentis adj/vb.ptc sitting apart, disagreeing W7
  dissideo, dissidere vb to sit apart, disagree W7
  ephedra n.fem a (nearly leafless) desert shrub W7
  excedo, excedere vb to go out W7
  insessus vb.ptc seated on W7
  insideo, insidere vb to sit on W7
  insidiae n.fem.pl plot, ambush W7
  insidiosus adj plotting W7
  intercedo, intercedere vb to go between W7
  methodus n.masc method W7
  necessarius adj necessary, closely connected W7
  necesse adj requisite, necessary, unavoidable W7
  nidus n.masc nest W7
  obsessus vb.ptc to be obsessed W7
  obsido, obsidere vb to obsess, besiege W7
  periodus n.fem rhetorical period W7
  possessio, possessionis n.fem possession LRC
  possessus vb.ptc possessed W7
  possideo, possidere vb to possess W7
  praecedo, praecedere vb to precede W7
  praesideo, praesidere vb to guard, preside over, lit. sit in front of W7
  procedo, procedere, processi, processum vb to proceed, advance, go forward LRC
  recedo, recedere, recessi, recessum vb to recede, retire LRC
  resideo, residere vb to reside, remain W7
  retrocedo, retrocedere vb to give back W7
  secedo, secedere vb to secede, separate W7
  sedatus vb.ptc calmed, sedate W7
  sedens, sedentis adj sitting W7
  sedentarius adj sedentary W7
  sedeo, sedere vb to sit W7
  sedes, sedis n.fem seat, habitation LRC
  sedile, sedilis n.neut seat, bench, sedile W7/CLD
  sedimentum n.neut settling, sediment W7
  sedo, sedare vb to lay, calm, settle W7
  sella n.fem seat, chair, saddle W7
  sessilis adj low, re: sitting, dwarf (of plants) W7
  sessio, sessionis stem act/period of sitting W7
  sessus vb.ptc sat W7
  sido, sidere vb to sink, settle, sit down W7
  solium n.neut seat W7
  subsidium n.neut help, reserves W7
  subsido, subsidere vb to squat, bow down W7
  succedo, succedere, successi, sucessum vb to enter, succeed, follow after LRC
  supersedeo, supersedere vb to sit on, refrain from, be superior to W7
Vulgar Latin: assedo, assedere vb to sit beside W7
  nidax n.masc nestling W7
  nidico, nidicare vb to nest W7
Late Latin: incessans, incessantis adj incessant, non-stop W7
  praedecessor n.masc predecessor, one who comes before W7
  synodus n.masc synod, meeting, assembly W7
Middle Latin: assessare vb to assess, impose tax CDC
Medieval Latin: assessus vb.ptc assessed W7
  assideo, assidere vb to assess W7
  periodus n.fem period of time; punctuation mark W7
  retrocedo, retrocedere vb to retrocede, give again W7
New Latin: Ephedra prop.n.fem (genus of) shrub W7
  -hedron n.sfx side, face W7
  nidus n.masc nest, breeding place W7
  stomodaeum n.neut anterior ectodermal part of alimentary canal/tract W7
  tetrahedron n.neut polyhedron with four faces W7
Old French: acces n access, arrival AHD
  ancestre n.masc ancestor W7
  asseoir vb to seat W7
  assesser vb to assess CDC
  as(s)ise n.fem assize, session, assessment, settlement W7/CDC
  auncestre n ancestor AHD
  cesser vb to stop W7
  chaiere vb to sit W7
Anglo-French: asseour n.masc seater W7
  soil n.masc seat W7
Middle French: acces n.masc arrival W7
  cession n.fem action of yielding/giving up W7
  deces n.masc decease W7
  exceder vb to exceed W7
  methode n.fem method W7
  niais adj fresh from the nest; stupid W7
  niche n.fem nest, cavity W7
  nicher vb to nest W7
  periode n.fem period W7
  possesser vb to possess W7
  précéder vb to precede, come before W7
  prédecessur n.masc predecessor W7
  procéder vb to proceed W7
  résider vb to dwell, reside W7
  sédentaire adj sedentary W7
  sédiment n.masc sediment W7
  session n.fem session, assembly, period of work W7
  superséder vb to refrain from W7
  surseoir vb to allow delay W7
  sursis vb.ptc allowed delay W7
French: asseoir vb to seat oneself W7
  céder vb to yield W7
  concéder vb to concede W7
  niche n.fem nest, cavity W7
  nid n nest TLL
  odomètre n.masc odometer W7
  rétrocéder vb to retrocede, give back W7
  séance n.fem period of sitting for a meeting W7
  seoir vb to sit, fit, be suitable W7
Baltic  
Lithuanian: sedeti, sedi, sedejo vb to sit LRC
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: sedeti, sezdo, sedisi vb to sit, remain LRC
  sesti, sedo, sedesi vb to sit down LRC
  xoditi, xozdo, xodisi vb to go, walk LRC
Albanian  
Albanian: sukses n.masc success LRC
Hellenic  
Greek: anodos n.masc way up W7
  edaphos n.neut ground, bottom W7
  hedra n.fem seat W7
  -edron afx side W7
  hezesthai vb to sit W7
  eikosaedron n.neut icosahedron W7
  eisodios adj coming in W7
  enédra n.fem ambush LRC
  epeisodios adj coming in besides W7
  ésodos n.fem entrance LRC
  Ephedra prop.n.fem Ephedra W7
  ephedros adj sitting upon W7
  hizein vb to set down W7
  kathedra n.fem seat, local seat of the Church W7
  kathodos n.fem way down W7
  méth-odos n.fem method, pursuit, scientific inquiry LS
  hodaios adj being on the way W7
  hodometron n.neut odometer W7
  odós n.fem way, road LRC
  periodos n.masc circuit, period of time, rhetorical period W7
  piezein vb to press W7
  piestos adj compressible W7
  synizein vb to blend, collapse, sit down together W7
  synizesis n.fem blending of adjacent vowels in prosody W7
  synodos n.masc meeting, assembly W7
Late Greek: synodos n.masc synod W7
  tetraedron n.neut tetrahedron W7
  tetraedros adj having four faces W7
Armenian  
Classical Armenian: nstim vb to sit LRC
Indic  
Sanskrit: upanisad n Upanishad W7
  pidayati vb to squeeze W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
V=class 5
adj=adjective
afx=affix
fem=feminine (gender)
intrans=intransitive
irr=irregular
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
obs=obsolete
pfx=prefix
pl=plural (number)
prep=preposition
prop=proper
ptc=participle
sfx=suffix
stem=stem
str=strong (inflection)
trans=transitive
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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