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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. se(i)- : sui- : si-, se- : su-, and sei- : si-   'to sow, dispatch, disseminate, let fall'

Semantic Fields: to Sow; Seed; to Strew, Spread Out


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Breton: hir adj long W7
  menhir n.masc long stone W7
Welsh: had n seed LRC
Old English: sæd n.neut seed, fruit, sowing RPN
  sawan vb.str to sow RPN/ASD
  sid adj wide, long, ample, extensive ASD
  side n.fem side, flank ASD
  siþ adv late, afterwards ASD
  siððan/syððan adv since, afterwards ASD
  siððon/seoððan adv since, afterwards ASD
Middle English: besyde/bisyde/beside/biside adv/prep beside MEV
  season n season W7
  seed n seed W7
  seminary n seminary W7
  sesoun n season W7
  sesounen vb to season W7
  side n side W7
  sins adv since W7
  sithen(s) adv since W7
  sowen vb to sow W7
English: beside adv/prep hard by, at the side (of) MEV
  colza n cole (herbaceous plant, esp. rape) AHD/W7
  disseminate vb to spread about (like sowing seed) AHD/W7
  inseminate vb.trans to sow AHD/W7
  menhir n single upright rude monolith AHD/W7
  season n natural/suitable time/occasion AHD/W7
  season vb to improve taste by adding salt/condiment AHD/W7
  seed n grain, ripened ovule of plant AHD/W7
  seme adj sown, dotted, re: ornamental pattern of objects/figures AHD/W7
  semen n viscid whitish fluid of male reproductive tract AHD/W7
  seminary n environment in/from which something originates/propagates AHD/W7
  serotinous adj late in flowering/developing AHD/W7
  side n left/right part of trunk of body AHD/W7
  silent adj making no utterance AHD/W7
  since adv from definite past time til now AHD/W7
  sith(ence) adv.arch since AHD/W7
  soiree n evening party/reception AHD/W7
  sow vb to plant/scatter seed for growth AHD/W7
  syne adv ago, since then AHD/W7
British English: side n pretentiousness, swaggering/arrogant manner AHD/W7
Old Frisian: sea vb to sow ASD
  sed n seed RPN
  side n side, flank ASD
Middle Dutch: coolsaet n cabbage seed W7
  saet n seed W7
Dutch: koolzaad n cabbage seed W7
  sedert conj since TLL
  sinds prep since TLL
  zaaien vb to sow LRC
Old Saxon: sad n seed RPN
  saian vb to sow RPN
  samo n seed RPN
  sida n side, flank ASD
  sið adv late ASD
Old High German: saen/sajan vb to sow RPN/ASD
  samo n seed RPN
  sat n seed, crop ASD
  sawen vb to sow RPN
  sid adv since W7
  sita n side W7
German: Saat n.fem seed, crop LRC
  säen vb to sow LRC
  Same n.masc seed LRC
  seit adv/prep since ASD
  seitdem conj since TLL
  Seite n.fem side LRC
Old Norse: síð adv late LRC
  siðan adv afterwards, since then W7
Old Icelandic:  vb to sow, throw, scatter RPN
  sáð n seed, corn, crop RPN
  sæði n seed; [pl.] crops RPN
Icelandic: sá(ði) vb to sow ASD
  sið adv late ASD
  siða n side, flank ASD
Danish: sa vb to sow LRC
  siden prep/conj since TLL
Swedish: sedan prep/conj since TLL
   vb to sow RPN
  sådd n seed RPN
Gothic: ana-silan vb.wk to cease, subside, grow calm W7/GED
  manaseþs n.str.fem mankind, the world LRC
  saian vb.str.VII to sow LRC
  seithu adv late ASD
  -seþs n.sfx -seed, -kind RPN
  þanaseiþs adv still, further LRC
Latin: disseminatus vb.ptc scattered around W7
  dissemino, disseminare vb to scatter around W7
  inseminatus vb.ptc sown into W7
  insemino, inseminare vb to sow into W7
  pono, ponere, posui, positum vb to place, situate LRC
  propono, proponere, proposui, propositum vb to point out, set forth LRC
  satio, sationis n.fem (act of) sowing, planting W7
  semen, seminis n.neut seed, semen; race RPN
  sementis n sowing, planting RPN
  seminarium n.neut seminary W7
  semino, seminare vb to sow, produce, bring forth W7
  sero, serere, sevi, satum vb to sow, plant RPN
  sero adv late LRC
  serotinus adj serotinous, coming late W7
  serus adj late W7
  silens, silentis adj/vb.ptc quiet, silent W7
  sileo, silere vb to be silent W7
  sino, sinere, sivi vb to allow, permit LRC
New Latin: semen n.neut seed, semen W7
Portuguese: semear vb to sow TLL
Spanish: sembrar vb to sow TLL
Old French: assaisoner vb to ripen, season W7
  saison n.fem season W7
Middle French: assaisoner vb to ripen, season W7
  semé adj seme W7
  semer vb to sow W7
  soir n.masc evening W7
  soirée n.fem evening W7
French: colza n.masc colza W7
  menhir n.masc menhir W7
  semer vb to sow TLL
  soirée n.fem evening party/period W7
Italian: seminare vb to sow TLL
Old Prussian: semen n seed, semen LRC
Lithuanian: seju, seti vb to sow RPN
  sekla n.fem seed, semen LRC
  selena n seed husk RPN
  semen(y)s n flax seed RPN
  síela n.fem soul LRC
  síena n.fem wall LRC
  skaitýti, skaito, skaite vb to read LRC
  skaitýtojas n.masc reader LRC
Polish: siac vb to sow RPN
Old Church Slavonic: seme n seed, semen RPN
  sejo, seti vb to sow RPN
Russian: semja n seed, semen LRC
Hittite: is-hu-u-wa-a-i to sow, shed, scatter RPN
Sanskrit: sra n seed-plow LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
VII=class 7
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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