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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. seku-   'to segue, follow'

Semantic Field: to Follow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: secg n.masc man; hero, warrior LRC
  sele-secg n.masc retainer, lit. hall-hero LRC
Middle English: as(s)ignen vb to assign W7/CDC
  associaten vb to associate AHD
  ensuen vb to ensue W7
  executen vb to execute W7
  obsequious adj obsequious W7
  prosecuten vb to prosecute W7
  pursuen vb to pursue W7
  resignen vb to resign W7
  scarlat n scarlet W7
  scarlet n scarlet W7
  second num.ord second (2nd) W7
  secte n sect W7
  secundine n secundines W7
  seel n seal W7
  sequence n sequence W7
  sequestren vb to sequester W7
  signe n sign W7
  signen vb to sign W7
  siute n suite, sequence, act of following W7
  subsequent adj subsequent W7
  suen vb to sue W7
  suitor n suitor W7
English: assign vb.trans to transfer (some property) to another AHD/W7
  associate vb to join as friend/partner/companion AHD/W7
  consequent adj following as effect/result AHD/W7
  consign vb to entrust, transfer to another's care AHD/W7
  consociate vb to bring into association AHD/W7
  designate adj chosen (but not yet installed) for office AHD/W7
  dissociate vb to disconnect, separate from union/association with another AHD/W7
  ensue vb.intrans to take place afterward/as result AHD/W7
  execute vb.trans to perform, carry out, put into effect AHD/W7
  extrinsic adj extraneous, not belonging to/forming part of thing AHD/W7
  insignia n emblem, badge of honor/authority AHD/W7
  intrinsic adj part of essential nature/constitution of thing AHD/W7
  obsequious adj sycophantic, exhibiting servile complaisance/attentiveness AHD/W7
  persecute vb.trans to harass with intent to grieve/injure/afflict AHD/W7
  prosecute vb to follow to end AHD/W7
  pursue vb to follow with intent to overtake/defeat/capture/kill AHD/W7
  resign vb to give up deliberately AHD/W7
  scarlatina n scarlet fever AHD/W7
  scarlet adj re: bright red coloring W7
  scarlet n scarlet cloth/clothes AHD/W7
  seal n assurance, guarantee, something that confirms/ratifies/makes secure AHD/W7
  second num.ord 2nd, next after 1st AHD/W7
  secondo n second part AHD/W7
  sect n dissenting/schismatic religious body AHD/W7
  secund adj unilateral, having some part/element on one side only AHD/W7
  secundines afterbirth AHD/W7
  segno n notational sign AHD/W7
  segue vb to proceed to next part without pause AHD/W7
  seguidilla n lively Spanish dance AHD/CDC
  sequacious adj tractable, subservient AHD/W7
  sequence n hymn of irregular meter between gradual and Gospel AHD/W7
  sequester vb.trans to segregate, set apart AHD/W7
  sequestrum n dead bone fragment detached from adjoining bone AHD/W7
  sigil n seal, signet AHD/W7
  sign n motion/gesture by which wish/thought/command is expressed/made known AHD/W7
  sign vb to place sign upon, represent/indicate via sign AHD/W7
  sociable adj social, inclined to companionship with others AHD/W7
  social adj involving allies/confederates AHD/W7
  society n company, companionship/association with fellows, friendly/intimate intercourse AHD/W7
  socio- pfx social/society AHD/W7
  subsequent adj succeeding, following in time/place/order AHD/W7
  sue vb to solicit, make petition to/for AHD/W7
  suit n suite AHD/W7
  suite n retinue AHD/W7
  suitor n pleader, one who petitions/entreats AHD/W7
Dutch: gezicht n face TLL
Old Saxon: segg n man ASD
Old Norse: seggr n.masc man; hero, warrior LRC
Icelandic: seggr n man ASD
Danish: ansigt n face TLL
Swedish: ansikte n face TLL
Latin: assigno, assignare vb to allow, assign W7
  associatus vb.ptc joined by companionship W7
  associo, associare vb to unite W7
  consequens adj/vb.ptc following, consequent W7
  consequor, consequi vb.dep to follow along W7
  consigno, consignare vb to seal, authenticate W7
  consociatus vb.ptc associated with W7
  consocio, consociare vb to associate with W7
  designatus vb.ptc designated W7
  designo, designare vb to designate W7
  dissociatus vb.ptc divided, separated W7
  dissocio, dissociare vb to divide, separate W7
  extrinsecus adj from without W7
  insigne n.neut mark, badge W7
  insignia insignia, flags W7
  insignis adj marked, distinguished W7
  intrinsecus adv internal, inwardly W7
  obsequiosus adj compliant W7
  obsequium n.neut compliance W7
  obsequor, obsequi vb.dep to comply W7
  persquor, persequi vb.dep to pursue W7
  prosecutus vb.ptc pursued W7
  prosequor, prosequi vb.dep to pursue W7
  resigno, resignare vb to unseal, cancel W7
  secta n.fem way of life, class of persons W7
  secundum prep following LRC
  secundus, secunda, secundum adj second, following, favorable LRC
  secutor n.masc follower W7
  secutus vb.ptc followed W7
  sequax, sequac adj following, attending W7
  sequens, sequentis vb.pres.ptc following W7
  sequester n.masc agent, depositary, bailee W7
  sequestrum n.neut legal sequestration W7
  sequor, sequi vb.dep to follow W7
  sigillum n.neut seal W7
  signo, signare vb to sign, mark, seal W7
  signum n.neut sign, mark, seal, token, image W7
  sociabilis adj sociable W7
  socialis adj social, conjugal, re: allies/partners W7
  societas, societatis n.fem alliance, companionship W7
  socio, sociare vb to join, unite, associate W7
  socius n.masc ally, companion, associate W7
  subsequens, subsequentis adj/vb.ptc following W7
  subsequor, subsequi vb.dep to follow closely W7
Vulgar Latin: sequitus vb.ptc followed W7
  sequor, sequi vb.dep to follow W7
Late Latin: extrinsecus adj extrinsic W7
  persecutor n.masc persecutor W7
  persecutus vb.ptc persecuted W7
  persequor, persequi vb.dep to persecute W7
  secta n.fem organized ecclesiastical body W7
  secundinae afterbirth W7
  sequentia n.fem sequel, act of following W7
  sequestro, sequestrare vb to set apart, surrender for safekeeping W7
Medieval Latin: scarlata adj scarlet (in color) W7
  scarlata n.fem scarlet cloth W7
New Latin: scarlatina n.fem scarlet fever W7
  sequestrum n.neut legal sequestration W7
Spanish: escarlata adj scarlet TLL
  seguida n.fem sequence AHD
  seguidilla n.fem.dim seguidilla AHD
  seguir vb to segue, follow AHD
  según prep according to TLL
Old French: as(s)igner vb to assign CDC
  ensuivre vb to ensue W7
  escarlate adj red, scarlet W7
  poursuir vb to pursue W7
  second adj second W7
  seel n.masc seal W7
  signe n.masc sign W7
  siute n.fem suite, sequence, act of following W7
  suir vb to follow W7
  suivre vb to follow W7
Anglo-French: pursuer vb to pursue W7
  suitor n.masc follower W7
Middle French: conséquent adj following, appropriate W7
  consigner vb to consign W7
  ensuivre vb to ensue W7
  executer vb to execute W7
  execution n.fem execution W7
  intrinsèque adj internal, intrinsic W7
  persécuter vb to persecute W7
  persécuteur n.masc persecutor W7
  résigner vb to resign (oneself) W7
  secte n.fem sect, group W7
  séquestrer vb to keep against one's will W7
  signer vb to mark, seal, sign W7
  societé n.fem society W7
French: assigner vb to assign, designate W7
  écarlate adj/n.fem scarlet TLL
  extrinsèque adj extrinsic W7
  selon prep according to TLL
  socio- pfx socio- W7
  suite n.fem suite, series W7
Italian: secondo adj second W7
  secondo prep according to TLL
  segno n.masc sign W7
  seguire vb to follow W7
Albanian: social adj social LRC
Greek: hepesthai vb to follow W7
  épomai vb to follow LRC
Persian: saqalat n (type of) rich cloth W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
pres=present (tense)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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