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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. sel-   'to grab, seize, take'

Semantic Fields: to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of; to Take


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: sellaim vb to take RPN
Old English: sæl n.neut time, season, occasion; happiness ASD
  sælig adj silly, blessed, fortunate W7
  sala n.masc sale ASD
  salu n sale RPN
  sellan/sillan/sylian vb.wk to sell, give, lend, supply RPN/ASD
  sel(l)en/sylen n.fem gift, grant RPN/ASD
Middle English: consul n consul W7
  hansell n handsel W7
  hilarite n hilarity, good spirits AHD
  sale n sale W7
  sellen vb to sell W7
  sely/silly adj silly; happy, innocent W7
  solas n solace W7
English: console vb.trans to alleviate grief AHD/W7
  consul n chief magistrate of republic W7
  consulate n office/jurisdiction of consul W7
  consult vb to confer with, solicit advice from W7
  consultant n expert, one who consults/gives advice W7
  counsel n advice TLL
  counsel vb to advise TLL
  counsellor n one who counsels LRC
  exhilarate vb.trans to enliven, make cheerful AHD/W7
  handsel n gift as token of good luck/wishes AHD/W7
  hilarious adj re: hilarity AHD
  hilarity n mirth, great merriment AHD
  sale n act of selling AHD/W7
  sell, sold vb to betray, deliver/give up (violating trust/duty/loyalty) AHD/W7
  silly adj weak, helpless, defenseless, pitiable AHD/OED
  solace n alleviation of grief/anxiety AHD/W7
Old Frisian: sella vb to sell, give, pay ASD
Dutch: consulaat n consulate TLL
Old Saxon: salig adj silly, blessed, fortunate ASD
  sellian vb to sell, give ASD
Old Low German: salig/selig adj silly, blessed, fortunate ASD
Old High German: sala n.fem sale, surrender, giving up/over ASD
  salig adj silly, happy W7
  sellan traders ASD
  sellen vb to sell, deliver, hand over RPN
German: Konsulat n consulate TLL
Old Norse: sala n.fem sale ASD
Old Icelandic: selja vb to sell, give up RPN
Icelandic: sæla n joy, bliss, happiness ASD
Danish: konsulat n consulate TLL
Swedish: konsulat n consulate TLL
Gothic: salja vb to offer sacrifice RPN
  saljan vb to sell, offer ASD
  selei n goodness ASD
Latin: consilium, consilii n.neut counsel LRC
  consul, consulis n.masc consul LRC
  consulo, consulere vb to reflect, take counsel LRC
  exhilaratus vb.ptc made cheerful W7
  exhilaro, exhilarare vb to make cheerful W7
  hilaro, hilarare vb to gladden W7
  hilarus adj glad, cheerful W7
  solacium n.neut act of consoling W7
  solor, solari vb.dep to console W7
Portuguese: conselho n counsel TLL
Spanish: consejo n counsel TLL
Old French: solas n.fem solace W7
French: conseil n counsel TLL
  consoler vb to console, comfort W7
Italian: consiglio n counsel TLL
Greek: eleîn vb to take, seize RPN
  elôrion n.neut spoils, booty LRC
  ilarós adj merry, joyous, cheerful, hilarious W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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