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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: (s)k(h)ai-, (s)k(h)ai-d-, (s)k(h)ai-t-   'to cuff, kick'

Semantic Field: to Hit, Strike, Beat


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: celen vb to ceil W7
  chisel n chisel W7
  circumcisen vb to circumcise W7
  deciden vb to decide W7
  sallet n sallet W7
  sement n cement W7
  sisoure n scissor W7
English: abscind vb to cut off CDC
  abscise vb to cut off AHD/W7
  abscissa n mathematical term for X coordinate in Cartesian plane AHD
  abscission n removal, cutting off W7
  caesura n break in verse caused by ending of word within foot AHD/W7
  ceil vb.trans to furnish (e.g. wooden ship) with lining AHD/W7
  cement n powder used in mortar/concrete AHD/W7
  cestus n boxer's hand covering AHD/W7
  chisel n metal tool with cutting edge at end AHD/W7
  -cide n.sfx killer AHD/W7
  circumcise vb.trans to cut off prepuce/clitoris AHD/W7
  concise adj marked by brevity of statement/expression AHD/W7
  decide vb to arrive at solution ending dispute/uncertainty AHD/W7
  excise vb.trans to cut out AHD/W7
  feticide n act/instance of killing fetus AHD/W7
  fratricide n one who kills a sibling AHD/W7
  incise vb.trans to cut into AHD/W7
  precise adj sharply/exactly defined/stated AHD/W7
  recision n cancellation AHD/W7
  sallet n light helmet with projection over neck AHD/W7
  scissor n scissors AHD/W7
  sororicide n killing of one's sister AHD
  suicide n act/instance of killing oneself AHD/W7
Dutch: cement n cement TLL
Middle High German: heie n mallet W7
German: Zement n cement TLL
Danish: cement n cement TLL
Swedish: cement n cement TLL
Latin: abscido, abscidere vb to abscise, hew off W7/ELD
  abscindo, abscindere vb to abscind, tear off, break off/away AHD/ELD
  abscisus, abscisa, abscisum adj severed, cut off W7
  caedes, caedis n.fem murder LRC
  caedo, caedere vb to cut, kill, murder W7
  caelo, caelare vb to carve W7
  caelum n.neut chisel W7
  caementum, caementi n.neut quarry-stone, stone chip LRC
  caestus n.masc gauntlet for boxer W7
  caesura n.fem act of cutting W7
  caesus vb.ptc cut W7
  -cida sfx -cide W7
  -cidium sfx killing W7
  circumcido, circumcidere vb to circumcise W7
  circumcisus vb.ptc circumcised W7
  concido, concidere vb to cut up W7
  concisus vb.ptc broken up into divisions W7
  decido, decidere vb to decide, cut off W7
  excido, excidere vb to cut out W7
  excisus vb.ptc cut out W7
  incido, incidere vb to fall on, happen W7
  incisus vb.ptc cut in W7
  praecido, praecidere vb to cut off W7
  praecisus vb.ptc cut off W7
Vulgar Latin: caesorium n.neut cutting instrument W7
Late Latin: caesura n.fem caesura W7
  cisorium n.neut cutting instrument W7
  rescissio, rescissionis n.fem rescission W7
Old French: ciment n.masc cement W7
Old North French: chisel n.masc chisel, cutter W7
  chisoir n.masc goldsmith's chisel W7
Middle French: celer vb to hide W7
  -cide sfx having killed W7
  cisoire n.fem cutting instrument W7
  decider vb to decide W7
  incise adj.fem chiselled W7
  inciser vb to make an incision W7
  précis adj precise W7
  recision n.fem recision W7
  rescision n.fem act of cutting again W7
  sallade n.fem helmet W7
Armenian: xayc n bite W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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