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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: skei-   'to cut, skive, exscind, separate'

Semantic Fields: to Cut; to Separate


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: scian n.fem edge, knife, dagger W7/IED
Scots Gaelic: sgian n.fem knife W7/GE
Old English: sceadan/scadan vb.str to shed, divide, separate W7/ASD
  sceaþ/scæþ n.fem sheath W7/ASD
  scinu n.fem shin W7
  scip n.neut ship LRC
  scitan, scat, sciton, sciten vb.str to shit AHD/ASD
Middle English: chine n chine W7
  conscience n conscience W7
  escochon n escutcheon W7
  esquire n esquire W7
  nice adj foolish, wanton W7
  science n science W7
  scifra n chip, shiver IEW
  scilicet adv scilicet W7
  scisme n schism W7
  sheden vb to shed W7
  shethe n sheath W7
  sheve n sheave W7
  shine n shin W7
  ship n ship W7
  shiten vb to shit W9
  shiver n shiver W7
  skipper n skipper W7
  squier n squire W7
English: adscititious adj derived/acquired extrinsically AHD/W7
  blatherskite n blustering talkative fellow AHD/W7
  chine n spine, backbone AHD/W7
  conscience n sense/consciousness of moral goodness/blameworthiness AHD/W7
  conscious adj sharing another's knowledge/awareness of inward state/outward fact AHD/W7
  ecu n (old) French gold coin with shield AHD
  equip vb.trans to prepare, furnish for action/service AHD/W7
  escudo n (former) Hispanic gold/silver coin AHD/W7
  escutcheon n coat of arms AHD/W7
  esquire n member of English gentry ranking below knight AHD/W7
  exscind vb.trans to excise, cut off/out AHD/W7
  gobshite n unpleasant person, nonsensical chatterer AHD
  nescience n ignorance, lack of knowledge/awareness AHD/W7
  nice adj wanton, dissolute AHD/W7
  omniscient adj having infinite insight/awareness/understanding AHD/W7
  prescience n foresight, knowledge of events/actions before occurrence AHD
  prescient adj foreknowing, re: prescience AHD
  prescind vb to detach for thought AHD/W7
  rescind vb.trans to remove, take away AHD/W7
  schism n division, separation AHD/W7
  schist n brittle metamorphic crystalline rock AHD/W7
  science n possession of knowledge vs. ignorance/misunderstanding AHD/W7
  scilicet adv namely, videlicet, to wit AHD/W7
  sciolism n superficial show of learning AHD/W7
  scission n schism, split/division in group/union AHD/W7
  scudo n Italian gold coin AHD/W7
  scutum n scute, bony/horny/chitinous plate AHD/W7
  sheath n case for (e.g. knife) blade AHD/W7
  sheave n grooved wheel/pulley of pulley block AHD/W7
  shed, shed vb.str to excise, segregate, set apart AHD/W7
  shin n front part of vertebrate leg below knee AHD/W7
  ship n large seagoing boat AHD/W7
  shipperke n small black tailless dog breed AHD
  shit n dung, feces, ordure, excrement LRC
  shit vb to defecate AHD/W9
  shiv n knife W7
  shive n cut, slice IEW
  shiver n small piece of broken thing AHD/W7
  shyster n pettifogger, professionally unscrupulous person AHD/W7
  skate n nag, thin decrepit/awkward-looking horse AHD/W7
  skean n dirk, dagger AHD/W7
  ski n narrow strip of wood/metal used to glide over snow AHD/W7
  skiff n small light sailing ship AHD/W7
  skipper n master of ship AHD/W7
  skite n offensive person AHD/W7
  skive vb.trans to pare, cut off in thin layers/pieces AHD/W7
  squire n knight's shield/armor-bearer AHD/W7
Scots English: skate n contemptible person W7
Old Frisian: skeda/sketha vb to divide, decide ASD
  skip n ship ASD
Middle Dutch: schip n ship W7
  schipper n skipper W7
  shiten vb to shit W9
Dutch: echtscheiding n divorce TLL
  schip n ship TLL
Old Saxon: skedan/skethan vb to divide ASD
  skeðia n sheath ASD
  skip n ship ASD
Old Low German: scethan/sceithan vb to divide ASD
Middle Low German: shiten vb to shit W9
Old High German: sceida n sheath W7
  scina n shin(bone); needle W7
  scizan/skizzan vb to shit W9/AHD
  skeidan/sceidan vb to separate W7/ASD
  skif/scif n ship W7/ASD
  skit n stick of wood W7
German: scheiden vb to divide, separate LRC
  Scheidung n.fem divorce, separation TLL
  Schiff n.neut ship LRC
Old Norse: skip n.neut ship, boat LRC
  skipa, skipað vb to array, draw up; assign, put in order LRC
  skipta, skiptat vb to share, divide, exchange; decide LRC
  skíð n.neut wooden stave/block/tablet LRC
  skifa vb to slice W7
  skita vb to shit W9
  skiþ n ski, stick of wood W7
Icelandic: skeiðir sheath ASD
  skip n ship ASD
Norwegian: ski n ski W7
Danish: skib n ship TLL
Swedish: skepp n ship TLL
  skida n sheath TLL
Gothic: skaidan vb to divide ASD
  skip n.str.masc ship LRC
Latin: adscitus vb.ptc received W7
  adsisco, adsciscere vb to receive W7
  consciens, conscientis adj/vb.ptc conscious, knowing W7
  conscientia n.fem joint knowledge, consciousness W7
  conscio, conscire vb to be conscious (of guilt) W7
  conscius adj conscious, knowing W7
  exscindo, exscindere vb to tear out, destroy W7
  inscientia, inscientiae n.fem ignorance LRC
  liceo, licere vb to be permitted W7
  nesciens, nescientis vb.ptc ignorant W7
  nescio, nescire vb to not know W7
  nescius adj ignorant W7
  praescindo, praescindere vb to cut off in front W7
  rescindo, rescindere vb to annul W7
  sciens, scientis adj/vb.ptc having knowledge W7
  scientia n.fem science W7
  scilicet adv surely, to wit W7
  scindo, scindere vb to cut, split, tear W7
  scio, scire vb to know W7
  scisco, sciscere vb to accept W7
  scissus vb.ptc split W7
  scius adj knowing W7
  scutum, scuti n.neut shield LRC
Late Latin: nescientia n.fem ignorance W7
  schisma n.neut schism, division W7
  sciolus n.masc smatterer W7
  scissio, scissionis n.fem act of splitting W7
  scutarius n.masc esquire, shield bearer W7
Medieval Latin: omniscientia n.fem omniscience W7
New Latin: omnisciens, omniscientis adj/vb.ptc all-knowing W7
  scutum n.neut shield W7
Portuguese: escudo n.masc shield W7
Spanish: escudo n.masc shield W7
Old French: conscience n.fem conscience W7
  écu n ecu LRC
  esquier n.masc squire, shield-bearer; knight W7
  nice adj ignorant W7
Middle French: cisme n.masc schism W7
  escuchon n.masc shield W7
  esquier n.masc squire W7
  esquif n.masc skiff W7
  science n.fem science W7
French: schiste n.masc schist W7
  scission n.fem act of splitting W7
Italian: scudo n.masc shield W7
Old Church Slavonic: cistu' adj pure, clean LRC
Homeric Greek: schízô vb to split, cleave LRC
Greek: schisma n.neut cleft, division W7
  schistos adj that may be split W7
Romani: chiv n shiv, blade W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GE=Colin Mark: The Gaelic-English Dictionary (2003)
IED=Patrick S. Dinneen: An Irish-English Dictionary (1927)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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