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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: 3. (s)kel-   'to parch, dessicate, dry out'

Semantic Field: Dry, Arid


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: sceald adj shoal IEW
Middle English: schalowe adj shallow IEW
  sclirosis n sclerosis W7
  shold adj shoal W7
English: sclera n opaque white part of eyeball enclosure AHD/W7
  scler(o)- pfx hard(ness) AHD
  scleroma n abnormally hard body tissue AHD
  sclerosis n pathological tissue hardening AHD/W7
  sclerotic n sclera AHD/W7
  sclerotium n hardened mycelium storing reserve food material AHD/W7
  sclerotization n arthropod cuticle hardening other than by chitin AHD
  sclerous adj hard, indurated AHD/W7
  shallow adj not deep, having little depth IEW/W7
  shoal adj shallow W7
  shoal n shallow water W7
  skeleton n rigid supportive/protective structure/framework of organism AHD/W7
Low German: scholl n shoal IEW
Medieval Latin: sclerosis n.fem sclerosis W7
New Latin: sclera n.fem opaque coat enclosing eyeball W7
  sclerotium n.neut mass of hardened mycelium W7
Latvian: kaltet, kalteju, kalteju vb to dry LRC
Homeric Greek: skéllô vb to parch, dry up LRC
Greek: skeletos adj dried up W7
  skleros adj hard W7
  skleroun vb to harden W7
  sklerosis n.fem hardening W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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