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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. (s)ker-   'to bend, curve, turn'

Semantic Fields: to Bend; to Turn

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Middle Irish: cruind adj round W7/IED
Welsh: crwn adj round RPN
English  
Old English: crisp adj crisp W7
  hreac n.masc rick, heap IEW/ASD
  hrin(c)g n.masc ring, circle, circuit W7/ASD
  hrisian vb.wk to shake, tremble W7/ASD
  hrung n.fem rung IEW
  hrycg n ridge, back W7
  scrincan vb to shrink W7
Middle English: ara(y)ngen/arengen vb to arrange W7/CDC
  cerchen vb to search W7
  cercle n circle W7
  coroune n crown W7
  corounen vb to crown W7
  creste n crest W7
  crisp adj crisp W7
  crowne n crown W7
  frouncen vb to curl W7
  range n range W7
  rangen vb to range W7
  reek n rick W7
  rigge n ridge W7
  ring n ring W7
  ruke n pile of combustible material W7
  rung n rung W7
  shrinken vb to shrink W7
English: arrange vb to dispose, put in proper order AHD/W7
  circa prep approximately at/in/of AHD/W7
  circadian adj re: circa 1-day periodicity AHD
  circinate adj rounded, coiled AHD/W7
  circle n ring, halo AHD/W7
  circum- pfx around, about AHD/W7
  circus n arena enclosed by banks of seats AHD/W7
  cirque n circus AHD/W7
  corona n projecting part of classic cornice AHD/W7
  corvette n small, highly maneuverable warship W7
  crepe n light crinkled woven fabric AHD/W7
  crest n showy tuft/process on bird/animal head AHD/W7
  cricoid adj re: cartilage of larynx with which arytenoid cartilages articulate AHD/W7
  crisp adj wavy, curly AHD/W7
  crispate adj crisp, curled, ruffled AHD
  crissum, crissa n feathers/area under bird's tail AHD
  crista n crest, ridge AHD
  cristate adj re: crista AHD
  crown n mark of honor, reward of victory AHD/W7
  crown vb.trans to place crown/wreath upon head AHD/W7
  curb n chain/strap on bit used to restrain horse AHD/W7
  curvature n act of curving, state of being curved AHD
  curve adj.arch curved: bent, turned, twisted AHD/W7
  curve n bend, something curved W7
  curve vb to turn/change/deviate from straight without sharp break/angularity AHD/W7
  curvet n prancing leap of horse AHD/W7
  derange vb.trans to disarrange AHD/W7
  flounce n frounce AHD/W7
  frounce n fabric strip attached by one edge AHD/W7
  koruna n crown (Czech monetary unit) AHD/W7
  krona n crown (Swedish/Icelandic monetary unit) AHD/W7
  krone n crown (Danish/Austrian monetary unit) AHD/W7
  kurtosis n flatness/peakedness of graphic representation of frequency distribution AHD/W7
  ranch n land for raising horses/cattle/sheep AHD/W7
  range n row, series of things in line AHD/W7
  range vb to set in row/proper order AHD/W7
  rank n row, series AHD/W7
  recherche adj rare, choice, exotic, exquisite AHD/W7
  rick n stack (e.g. hay) in open air IEW/W7
  ridge n elevated body part (e.g. along backbone) AHD/W7
  ring n circular band for holding/connecting AHD/W7
  ringhals n spitting cobra AHD
  Ringwraith prop.n a.k.a. Nazgûl in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  rink n smooth extent of ice AHD/W7
  ruck n jumble, indistinguishable collection AHD/W7
  rucksack n knapsack: supply bag strapped on back AHD/W7
  rung n rail, spoke, cross-bar IEW/OED
  search vb to seek carefully/thoroughly AHD/W7
  shrink vb to cower, huddle, contract/curl up body AHD/W7
Scots English: rinc n area where contest is held W7
W-Germanic  
Middle Dutch: schrinken vb to draw back W7
Dutch: rug n ridge, back TLL
Old Saxon: hrisian vb to shake, tremble ASD
Old High German: hring n ring W7
  hrukki n ridge, back W7
  skank n frame; cupboard KDW
  skrank n deceit KDW
German: Kehre n.fem turning, winding, reversal LRC
  kehren vb to curve, sweep LRC
  Krone n.fem crown, coronet; Austrian monetary unit W7
  Kurve n curve TLL
  Ring n.masc ring ASD
  Rücken n.masc ridge, back LRC
  Schrank n cupboard TLL
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: hraukr n rick W7
  hríð n.fem while, time; storm, attack LRC
  hrúga n.fem heap LRC
  hrøkkva vb to fall back LRC
Icelandic: hringr n ring, circle ASD
  hrista vb to shake ASD
  krona n crown (Icelandic monetary unit) W7/IEO
Danish: krone n crown (Danish monetary unit) W7
  ryg n ridge, back TLL
Swedish: krona n crown (Swedish monetary unit) W7/SEO
  kurva n curve TLL
  rygg n ridge, back TLL
E-Germanic  
Gothic: hrisian vb to shake, tremble ASD
Crimean Gothic: rinck, ringo n ring CGo
Italic  
Latin: circa adv around W7
  circinatus vb.ptc surrounding W7
  circino, circinare vb to round W7
  circinus n.masc pair of compasses W7
  circulus n.masc circle W7
  circum adv/prep around LRC
  circus n.masc circle, circus, round building W7
  corona n.fem crown, wreath W7
  corono, coronare vb to crown W7
  criso, crisare vb to move haunches AHD/ELD
  crispo, crispare vb to swing, brandish AHD/ELD
  crispus adj crisp W7
  crista n.fem tuft, comb, crista W7/ELD
  crux, crucis n.fem cross W7
  curvo, curvare vb to curve W7
  curvus adj bent, arched, curved RPN
Late Latin: circo, circare vb to go about W7
New Latin: cricoides n.masc cartilage in larynx W7
Old Spanish: ranchear vb to take up quarters W7
Spanish: cerca adv around TLL
  rancho n.masc camp, hut W7
Mexican Spanish: rancho n.masc small ranch W7
Old French: arangier/arengier vb to arrange W7/CDC
  cercle n.masc circle W7
  circum- pfx around W7
  corone n.fem crown W7
  coroner vb to crown W7
  desrengier vb to derange W7
  renc/reng n.masc rank, line, place, row W7
  renge n.fem range W7
  rengier vb to place, set in row W7
Middle French: arangier vb to arrange W7
  cerchier vb to go about, survey, search W7
  courbe n.fem curve, curved piece of wood/iron W7
  courber vb to curve W7
  courbette n.fem curtsy W7
  creste n.fem curved land W7
  ranger vb to place, set in row W7
  renc n.masc row, rank W7
French: arranger vb to arrange, put into rank CDC
  cirque n.masc circus W7
  crêpe n.fem crepe, pancake W7
  déranger vb to derange, bother W7
  recherché adj recherche W7
Italian: corvetta n.fem corvette W7/CID
Baltic  
Lithuanian: kraipau, kraipýti vb to turn about RPN
  kreivas adj curved, crooked; wry RPN
  krypstù, krypti vb to bow, bend RPN
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: krilo n.neut wing; pinnacle LRC
Russian: krivít´ vb to bend, distort RPN
  krivój adj curved, crooked RPN
Hellenic  
Homeric Greek: kírkos n.masc hawk/falcon that circles LRC
  korônê n.fem sea-crow, cormorant LS
  korônís adj bent, curved LRC
  kríkos n.masc ring, necklace, bracelet LRC
  kurtós adj curved, rounded LRC
Greek: kirkos n.masc ring W7
  korônós adj curved, crooked RPN
  krikoeides adj ring-shaped W7
  kyrtos adj convex W7
  kyrtosis n.fem convexity W7
Iranian  
Avestan: skaruna- adj round RPN

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
adv=adverb(ial)
arch=archaic
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
pfx=prefix
prep=preposition
prop=proper
ptc=participle
trans=transitive
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
IED=Patrick S. Dinneen: An Irish-English Dictionary (1927)
IEO=Arngrimur Sigurdsson: Íslenzk-Ensk Orðabók (1970)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
SEO=Norstedts Stora Svensk-Engelska Ordbok, 3rd ed. (2000)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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