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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: (s)kerb(h)-, (s)kreb(h)-, nasalized (s)kremb-   'to curve, turn'

Semantic Field: to Turn


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hearpe/hærpe n.fem harp IEW/ASD
  *hrimpan vb to rumple IEW
Middle English: harp n harp W7
  rampen vb to ramp W7
  scorchen vb to scorch W7
  scorcnen vb to scorch W7
  shrimpe n shrimp W7
English: crambe n rhyming game AHD/W7
  crambo n rhyming game AHD/W7
  harp n instrument with many strings plucked by fingers W7
  ramp n slope, inclined surface, bend/curve where rail/coping changes direction AHD/W7
  ramp vb.intrans to be rampant, stand/advance menacingly AHD/W7
  ramp vb.obs to creep, crawl OED
  rimple n fold, wrinkle AHD
  rumple vb to crumple, wrinkle AHD/W7
  scorch vb to burn surface (changing color/texture) AHD/W7
  scrimp vb to be cheap/tight in providing for AHD/W7
  shrimp n small marine decapod crustacean AHD/W7
Middle Dutch: rimpen vb to bend, curve, rumple IEW
Dutch: korf n basket TLL
  rompelen vb to rumple W7
Old High German: har(p)fa n harp IEW
  (h)rimfan/rimpfan vb to be shrunk, rumpled IEW
  korb n basket KDW
German: Harfe n.fem harp ASD
  Korb n basket TLL
  Rampe n.fem ramp LRC
  rümpfen vb to bend, curve, rumple IEW
Old Norse: skorpna vb to shrivel up W7
  skreppa vb to slip LRC
Old Icelandic: harpa n harp IEW
Icelandic: harpa n harp ASD
Danish: kurv n basket TLL
Swedish: korg n basket SAO/TLL
  skrympa vb to shrink W7
Latin: corbis n basket LRC
Old French: ramper vb to ramp, climb OED
French: rampe n.fem ramp, handrail W7
  ramper vb to grovel, ramp: creep OED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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