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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. (s)keu-, (s)keuu : (s)ku-   'to hide, wrap, cover'

Semantic Fields: to Hide, Conceal; to Wind, Wrap; to Cover


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: cuaran n shoe GED
Welsh: curan n shoe GED
  cwd n scrotum GED
Old English: boc-hus n.neut library, lit. book-house MEV
  ge-scy n.neut shoes, footwear GED
  hord n.masc/neut hoard, treasure ASD
  hordian vb.wk to hoard GED/ASD
  hosa n.masc hose, stocking; husk W7
  hus n.neut house LRC
  hyd n.fem hide, skin GED
  hydan vb.wk to hide, conceal GED
  maðum-hus n.neut treasury, lit. treasure-house ASD
  sceawian vb to look at GED
  sceo/sco(h) n.masc shoe GED/ASD
  scog(e)an, scode, scod vb.wk to shoe ASD
  scu(w)a n.masc shadow GED
Middle English: boc-hous n library, lit. book-house MEV
  custodie n custody W7
  hide n hide, animal skin W7
  hord n hoard W7
  hose n hose W7
  hous n house W7
  obscure adj obscure W7
  reculen vb to recoil W7
  schele n hut AHD
  scum n scum W7
  shoo n shoe W7
  skimmen vb to skim W7
  sky n sky W7
English: bascule n structure/apparatus with one end counterbalanced by another AHD/W7
  chiaroscuro n pictorial representation as light/shade without color AHD/W7
  choanocyte n collared/flagellated monadiform sponge cell AHD/CDC
  culet n armor covering buttocks AHD/W7
  culotte n divided skirt AHD/W7
  custody n immediate charge/control exercised by person/authority AHD/W7
  cutaneous adj re: skin AHD/W7
  cuticle n skin, pellicle AHD/W7
  cutin n outer epidermal wall of plant AHD/W7
  cutis n skin, dermis AHD
  -cyte n.sfx cell AHD/W7
  cyt(o)- pfx cell AHD
  Fallohide prop.n hobbit clan in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  hide, hid, hidden vb.str to cover, conceal GED
  hide n raw/dressed skin of animal AHD/W7
  histiocyte n phagocytic tissue cell AHD/W7
  hoard n hidden/stored-up fund/supply AHD/W7
  hoard vb to collect/lay up, amass/deposit in secret W2I
  hose n cloth leg/foot covering AHD/W7
  hosel n socket in golf clubhead where shaft attaches AHD
  house n building used as family living quarters W7
  huddle n densely packed group/crowd AHD
  hut n shack, small simple temporary dwelling AHD/W7
  kishke n boiled/roasted beef sausage AHD
  lederhosen n knee-length leather trousers AHD/W7
  Mathom-house prop.n weapon museum in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  meerschaum n hydrous magnesium silicate: light, fine white clay/mineral AHD/W7
  obscure adj dark, dusky, with little/no light AHD/W7
  pinocytosis n cell ingesting fluid through membrane AHD
  recoil vb.intrans to fall/shrink back AHD/W7
  scum n foul filmy covering on surface of liquid AHD/W7
  shoe, sho(e)d vb.wk to furnish/put on shoes W7
  shoe n outer covering for human foot W7
  skewbald adj re: patches of white on non-black coat AHD
  skim vb to clear off scum/floating matter AHD/W7
  sky n firmament, atmosphere constituting arch/vault over earth AHD/W7
British English: shieling n shepherd's hut AHD
Scots English: shiel n hut AHD
Old Frisian: hotha n testicle GED
  hud/hed n hide, skin ASD
  hus n house ASD
  skawia/skowia vb to look at, inspect ASD
  skoch/sco n shoe GED/ASD
Middle Dutch: schum n scum W7
Dutch: huid n hide, skin TLL
  huis n house LRC
  hut n hut TLL
  schoen n shoe TLL
  schuim n scum, foam TLL
  schuur n barn TLL
Old Saxon: gi-scohi/gi-skohi n shoes, footwear GED/ASD
  hord n.neut hoard, treasure GED/ASD
  hus n house ASD
  skauwon/scawon vb to look at GED/ASD
  skoh n shoe GED
Old Low German: scauwon/scouwon vb to look (at) ASD
  sco n shoe ASD
Old High German: gi-scuohi n.str.neut shoes, footwear GED
  hodo n.wk.masc testicle GED
  hort n.str.neut hoard, treasure GED
  hosa n leg covering W7
  hus n house ASD
  hut n.str.neut hide, skin GED
  hutta n hut W7
  scum n scum, foam W7
  scuoh n.str.neut shoe GED
  scu(wo)/scuwo n.str.masc shadow GED/ASD
  skiura/skura n barn KDW
  skouwon/scouwon/sca(u)won vb.wk to look at GED/ASD
  skugina n barn KDW
  skur n shelter, protection GED
Middle High German: gi-hurten vb.wk to hoard, collect treasure GED
  hose n trousers W7
  lederhose n leather trousers W7
  schuoch n shoe GED
German: Haus n.neut house ASD
  häuslich adj domestic TLL
  Haut n.fem hide, skin ASD
  Hode n.masc testicle LRC
  horten vb to hoard LRC
  Hosen trousers LRC
  Hütte n.fem hut LRC
  Lederhosen leather trousers W7
  Meerschaum n.masc meerschaum W7
  Schaum n.masc scum, foam, froth W7
  Scheuer n.fem shed, barn, granary LRC
  Scheune n barn TLL
  Schuh n.masc shoe GED
Yiddish: kishke n kishke AHD
Old Norse: hauss n.masc skull LRC
  hús n.neut house, room; [pl.] farm LRC
  hús-frú n wife KNW
  skáli n.masc shed; hall, sleeping-hall LRC
  skúr n almond hull KNW
  sky n sky, cloud W7
Old Icelandic: hodd n hoard, treasure GED
  huð n skin GED
  skor n shoe GED
  skugg-sja n.fem mirror GED
Icelandic: hodd n.neut hoard, treasure ASD
  húð n hide, skin ASD
  hús n house ASD
  skór n shoe ASD
  skuggi n shadow, spectre ASD
Danish: hus n house TLL
  hustru n wife TLL
  hytte n hut TLL
  sko n shoe TLL
  skugge n shadow TLL
  skum n scum, foam TLL
  sky n cloud TLL
Old Swedish: hydda vb.wk to conceal GED
Swedish: hustru n wife TLL
  hydda n hut TLL
  sko n shoe TLL
  skugga n shadow TLL
  skum n scum, foam TLL
Gothic: ga-skohi n shoes, footwear ASD
  hus n house ASD
  huzd n.neut hoard, treasure GED
  *skohs n.masc shoe, sandal GED
  *skuggwa n.wk.masc mirror GED
Crimean Gothic: hus n house CGo
Latin: culus n.masc backside W7
  custodia n.fem guarding W7
  custos, custodis n.masc guardian W7
  cuticula n.fem.dim cuticle, little skin W7
  cutis n.fem cutis GED
  obscurus adj dark, covered, obscure GED
New Latin: cutaneus adj cutaneous W7
  -cyta sfx -cyte W7
Old French: cul n.masc backside W7
  reculer vb to step back W7
Middle French: obscur adj dark, obscure W7
French: bascule n.fem rocker W7
  cul n.masc backside (vulgar) W7
  culotte n.fem pants, breeches W7
  écume n scum, foam TLL
Italian: chiaro adj clear, light W7
  chiaroscuro n.masc clair-obscur, light and shade W7
  oscuro adj dark, obscure W7
Lithuanian: skurà n leather, bark of tree GED
Russian: kishka n kishke, intestine AHD
Homeric Greek: keúthô vb to hide, conceal GED
  kústis n.fem bladder LRC
  skûtos n.masc skin, hide, leather GED
Greek: kústhos n.masc vulva GED
  kytos n.masc hollow vessel W7
  skunia brows GED
Sanskrit: skunati vb to cover GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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