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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: skot-   'shade, shadow, darkness'

Semantic Fields: Shade, Shadow; Darkness


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: sceadu n.fem shade, shadow ASD
Middle English: shade n shadde; shade W7
  shadwe n shadow W7
English: scotia n concave molding AHD/W7
  scotoma n blind/dark spot in visual field AHD/W7
  scotophil adj growing/functioning best in darkness AHD
  scotophobia n nyctophobia: fear of night/darkness AHD
  shadde n shed AHD/W7
  shade n comparative darkness/obscurity AHD/W7
  shadow n shade within defined bounds AHD/W7
  Shadowfax prop.n Gandalf's silver-gray horse in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Shadowmere prop.n reflecting lake in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  shed n slight structure for shelter/storage AHD/W7
Dutch: schaduw n shadow TLL
Old Saxon: skado n shadow ASD
Old High German: scato n shadow ASD
German: Schatten n shadow TLL
Gothic: skadus n shadow ASD
Medieval Latin: scotoma, scotomatis n.fem dimness of vision W7
Homeric Greek: skótios adv in secret, in the dark LRC
  skótos n.masc gloom, darkness LRC
Greek: skotía n.fem darkness LRC
  skótios adj dark, shadowy LRC
  skotoun vb to darken W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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