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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: sna-, snu-(t-), snau-, sn-eu-, sn-et-   'to flow, swim; damp'

Semantic Fields: to Flow; to Swim; Wet, Damp


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: snyflan vb to snivel W7
Middle English: nurishen vb to nourish W7
  nurse n nurse W7
  nurture n nurture W7
  snacchen vb to snap, seize W7
  sniffen vb to sniff W7
  snivelen vb to snivel W7
  snubben vb to snub W7
  snute n snout W7
English: chersonese n peninsula AHD/W7
  naiad n water-nymph (Greek mythology) AHD/W7
  natant adj swimming/floating in water AHD/W7
  natation n act/art of swimming AHD
  natatorial adj re: swimming AHD
  natatorium n place for swimming AHD/W7
  nekton n free-swimming aquatic animal AHD/W7
  neuston n minute/microscopic organisms inhabiting water surface AHD
  nourish vb.trans to rear, nurture AHD/W7
  nurse n woman who suckles infant not her own AHD/W7
  nurse vb to nourish, suckle at breast AHD/W7
  nurture n training, upbringing AHD/W7
  nutrient adj furnishing nourishment AHD/W7
  nutriment n something that nourishes/promotes growth AHD/W7
  nutrition n nourishing, being nourished AHD/W7
  nutritious adj nourishing AHD/W7
  nutritive adj nutritious AHD
  schnauzer n (German breed of) rough-haired terrier AHD/W7
  schnoz human nose AHD
  snap n abrupt closure, biting/snapping W7
  snap vb to suddenly close jaws, seize sharply in mouth AHD/W7
  snatch vb to seize suddenly AHD/W7
  sniff vb to draw air audibly into nose AHD/W7
  sniffle vb.freq to snuffle, sniff repeatedly W7
  snip n bit, fragment, small snipped-off piece AHD/W7
  snip vb to cut (off) with shears/scissors AHD/W7
  snivel vb.intrans to snuffle, run at the nose AHD/W7
  snoop vb.intrans to look/pry in sneaking/meddlesome manner AHD/W7
  snot n.vulg phlegm, nasal mucus AHD
  snout n long projecting nose (e.g. of swine) AHD/W7
  snub vb.trans to rebuke, check/stop with cutting retort AHD/W7
  snuff vb to draw forcibly through/into nostrils AHD/W7
  snuffle vb to sniff/snuff audibly/repeatedly AHD/W7
  supernatant adj floating on water surface AHD/W7
Middle Dutch: snacken vb to snap at W7
Dutch: snappen vb to snap W7
  snoepen vb to buy/eat on the sly W7
  snuffelen vb to snuffle W7
  snuffen vb to sniff, snuff W7
Low German: snappen vb to snap W7
Middle High German: snappen vb to snap W7
German: Nekton n nekton W7
  Schnappen n.neut snap LRC
  schnappen vb to snap, catch, snatch LRC
  Schnauze n.fem snout, muzzle W7
  Schnauzer n.neut schnauzer W7
  schnüffeln vb to snuffle LRC
Old Norse: snubba vb to scold W7
Icelandic: sneypa vb to scold W7
Latin: chersonesus n.masc chersonese W7
  naias, naiadis n.fem naiad W7
  natans, natantis vb.ptc swimming W7
  natatus vb.ptc having swam W7
  nato, natare vb.freq to swim W7
  no, nare vb to swim W7
  nutricius adj nourishing W7
  nutriens, nutrientis vb.pres.ptc nourishing W7
  nutrimentum n.neut nutriment, nourishment W7
  nutrio, nutrire vb to nourish, suckle W7
  nutritus vb.ptc nourished, suckled W7
  nutrix, nutricis n.fem nurse W7
  supernatans, supernatantis vb.pres.ptc swimming over W7
  supernato, supernatare vb to float W7
Late Latin: natatorium n.neut place for swimming W7
  nutritio, nutritionis n.fem nutrition W7
  nutritura n.fem act of nursing W7
Old French: norrir vb to nourish, suckle W7
  nurice n.fem nurse W7
Middle French: norriture n.fem food, nourishment W7
  nutrition n.fem nutrition W7
French: naïade n.fem naiad W7
Homeric Greek: náô vb to flow LS
  néô vb to swim, float LS
  nêsos n.masc island LRC
  nêchô vb to swim LRC
  nótios adj wet, damp, moist LRC
  chérsos n shore, dry land LRC
Greek: naïás n.fem naiad: river-nymph LS
  nektos adj swimming W7
  chersó-nêsos n.fem chersonese LS


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pres=present (tense)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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