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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: stai-, sti-, sti-a-   'to condense, press together; stiff; stone'

Semantic Fields: to Gather, Collect; to Press; Rock, Stone


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: Æðelstan prop.n Athelstan, lit. noble-stone LRC
  bryn-stan n.masc brimstone MEV
  eorc(n)an-stan/eorcen-stan n.str.masc jewel, precious stone, lit. silver-stone ASD
  stan n.masc stone W7
  stan-boga n.masc arch, bridge, lit. stone-bow ASD
  stan-clif n.neut stony cliff LRC
  stig/sti n.neut sty, enclosure; hall, part of house W7/IEW
  sti(g)-weard n.masc steward, lit. hall-ward W7
Middle English: brinston/brynstane n brimstone W7/MEV
  steward n steward W7
  ston(e) n stone W7
  sty n sty W7
English: Arkenstone prop.n Thorin's precious stone in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
  Athelstan prop.n king of England (AD 924/925 - 939) LRC
  brimstone n sulfur AHD/W7
  Elfstan prop.n hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Elfstone prop.n a.k.a. Aragorn in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  steapsin n lipase in pancreatic juice AHD/W7
  stearic adj re: stearin/tallow AHD/W7
  stearin n ester of glycerol/stearic acid AHD/W7
  steatite n soapstone: massive talc AHD/W7
  stein n earthenware beer mug AHD/W7
  steward n one employed to manage domestic concerns AHD/W7
  stone n concretion of earthy/mineral matter AHD/W7
  Stonebows a.k.a. Brandywine Bridge in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Stonewain prop.n narrow valley in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  sty n enclosure for animals (esp. swine) W7
  tungsten n hard heavy ductile polyvalent metal AHD/W7
Old Frisian: sten n stone ASD
Dutch: steen n stone TLL
Old Saxon: sten n stone ASD
Old High German: stein n.masc stone W7
  stiga n.fem sty; hall ASD
Middle High German: stige/stije n sty for small livestock IEW
German: Steige n.fem sty, hen-coop ASD
  Stein n.masc stone W7
  Steingut n.neut stoneware, pottery W7
Old Norse: Aðalsteinn prop.n Athelstan, lit. noble stone LRC
  bautarsteinn n.masc memorial stone LRC
  jarknasteinn n.masc precious stone LRC
  steinn n.masc stone, rock LRC
  sti n sty W7
Icelandic: steina-brú n (natural) stone bridge ASD
  stein-bogi n stone arch ASD
  steinn n stone ASD
  stía n.fem sty, kennel ASD
  stívarðr n steward ASD
  svína-stí n pig-sty ASD
Danish: sten n stone TLL
  stí n sty ASD
Swedish: sten n stone W7
  stia n.fem sty ASD
  tungsten n tungsten, lit. heavy stone W7
Gothic: stáins n.str.masc stone LRC
Latin: steatitis n.fem precious stone W7
French: stéarine n.fem stearin W7/R1
  stéarique adj stearic, re: stearine W7
Homeric Greek: stéar n.neut (hard) fat, tallow LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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