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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: stegh-, nasalized stengh-   'stick, stalk, stang, etc.'

Semantic Field: Branch


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: stacga/stagga n.masc stag W7
  steng n stang KEW
  stingan, stang, stungon, stungen vb.str to sting W7/ASD
Middle English: stagge n stag W7
  stingen vb to sting W7
  stong/stang(e) n stang W2I
English: stag n adult male red deer AHD/W7
  stang n.dial rail, pole, beam W2I
  sting, stung vb.str to prick painfully AHD/W7
  Sting prop.n sword of Bilbo/Frodo in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
  stochastic adj random AHD/W7
Dutch: stang n stang W2I
  stengel n stang, stalk TLL
Old High German: stengil/stingil n stang, stalk KDW
German: Stange n stang, rod LRC
  Stengel/Stängel n stang, stalk TLL
Old Norse: andarsteggi n drake W7
  stinga vb to sting W7
  stong n.fem stang, rod KNW
Icelandic: stinga vb to sting, stick, stab ASD
Gothic: us-stiggan vb to thrust out ASD
Homeric Greek: stáchus n.masc ear of grain LRC
Greek: stochazesthai vb to aim at, guess at W7
  stochastikos adj skillful in aiming W7
  stochos n.masc aim, guess, target W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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