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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: steigh-   'to climb, ascend; stride, march'

Semantic Fields: to Rise; to Walk


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gestigan, gestah, gestigon, gestigen vb.str.I to mount, ascend LRC
  stæger n.fem stair(case) W7
  stigan, stah, stigon, stigen vb.str.I to rise, ascend LRC
  stigel n.fem stile W7
  stigend n.masc sty W7
  stigrap n.masc stirrup W7
  stihtan vb.wk to stickle, arrange W7/ASD
Middle English: steir n stair(case) W7
  stighten vb to stickle, arrange W7
  stightlen vb.freq stickle W7
  stile n stile W7
  stirop n stirrup W7
  styan n sty W7
English: acrostic n composition where initial/final letters of lines form word/phrase/sequence AHD/W7
  cadastre n official register of real estate value/quantity/ownership AHD/W7
  distich n strophic unit: two lines AHD/W7
  hemistich n poetic half-verse AHD/W7
  pentastich n poem/stanza with five lines AHD
  stair n flight/series of steps from level to level AHD/W7
  stich n line of verse AHD
  stichometry n division of prose into fixed-length lines AHD
  stichomythia n dialogue of dispute/altercation in alternating lines AHD/W7
  stickle vb.intrans to contend stubbornly on insufficient grounds AHD/W7
  stickler n one who stickles, insists on exactness/completeness LRC
  stile n (set of) steps for getting over fence/wall AHD/W7
  stirrup n ring used as foot support while riding AHD/W7
  stoichiometry n branch of chemical science AHD/W7
  sty n inflamed sebaceous gland swelling at eyelid margin AHD/W7
Old Frisian: stiga vb to go, ascend ASD
  stige n score, twenty pieces LRC
Dutch: steeg n lane TLL
  stichten vb to arrange; instigate ASD
  stijgen vb to go, ascend ASD
Old Saxon: gi-stigan vb to mount, ascend, descend ASD
  stigan vb to go, ascend ASD
Old High German: stegareif n stirrup W7
  stiften vb to arrange; instigate ASD
  stigan vb to rise W7
  stiglia n stile ASD
German: Stegreif n stirrup ASD
  Steig n.masc hill-climbing LRC
  steigen vb to mount, ascend ASD
  Stiege n.fem staircase; score, twenty pieces LRC
Icelandic: stétta vb to found, establish ASD
  stigreip n stirrup ASD
  stíga vb to go, ascend ASD
Norwegian: sti/stig(je) n sty ASD
Danish: sti n path TLL
  stige vb to go, ascend ASD
Swedish: stig n path TLL
  stiga vb to go, ascend ASD
Gothic: ga-steigan vb to ascend, descend ASD
  steigan vb to go, ascend ASD
Crimean Gothic: stega n score, twenty pieces CGo
Latin: distichon n.neut distich W7
  hemistichium n.neut hemistich W7
Old French: acrostiche n acrostic AHD
Middle French: acrostiche n.masc acrostic W7
French: acrostiche n.masc acrostic AHD
  cadastre n.masc cadastre W7
Old Italian: catastico n.masc cadastre W7
Italian: catastro n.masc cadastre W7
Lithuanian: staigà adv suddenly LRC
Homeric Greek: steíchô vb to go, move, march, climb LRC
Greek: akrostichis n.fem acrostic W7
  distichon n.neut distich W7
  distichos adj having two rows W7
  hemi-stichion n.neut hemistich W7
  sticho-mythein vb to speak dialogue in alternate lines W7
  sticho-mythia n.fem stichomythia W7
  stichos n.masc stich, line, verse W7
  stoicheion n element W7
Late Greek: katastichon n.neut notebook W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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