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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. (s)ter-, (s)teru- : (s)tre-   'stark, stiff, solid, rigid, etc.'

Semantic Fields: Strong, Mighty, Powerful; Hard


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: starian vb.wk to stare W7/ASD
  stearc adj stiff, rigid W7
  steorfan vb to starve W7
  steort n tail LRC
  *stercan vb to starch, stiffen W7
  storc n.masc stork W7
  stridan, strad, stridon, striden vb.str to stride, walk IEW/ASD
  stride n.masc stride, pace ASD
  striman vb to strime; resist, oppose ASD
  strimendi adj striving, resisting IEW
  strutian vb to exert oneself W7
  styrne adj stern W7
  þrot-bolla n.masc throttle, gullet IEW/ASD
  þrote n throttle IEW
  þrotu n.fem throat IEW/ASD
Middle English: staren vb to stare W7
  stark adj stark W7
  sterchen vb to starch, stiffen W7
  sterne adj stern W7
  sterten vb to start W7
  stertlen vb.freq to startle W7
  sterven vb to starve W7
  stork n stork W7
  striden vb to stride W7
  strompat/strumpet n strumpet OED
  strouten vb to strut W7
  struglen vb to struggle W7
  throte n throat W7
  throtlen vb to throttle W7
English: anastrophe n inversion of usual syntactic word order AHD/W7
  apostrophe n mark (') used to indicate plural/possessive-case/letter-omission AHD/W7
  boustrophedon adj re: writing alternate lines in alternate directions AHD/W7
  catastrophe n final event of drama (esp. tragedy) AHD/W7
  cholesterol n steroid alcohol in animal cells/body fluids AHD/W7
  diastrophism n deformation of earth's crust AHD/W7
  redstart n small European songbird with rust-red breast/tail AHD
  starch vb.trans to stiffen (with starch) AHD/W7
  stare vb to look fixedly AHD/W7
  stark adj strong, robust AHD/W7
  Starkhorn prop.n Rohan mountain in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  start vb to jump, move suddenly/violently AHD/W7
  startle vb to move/jump suddenly (in alarm/surprise) AHD/W7
  starve vb to perish from want of food AHD/W7
  stere n unit of volume: 1 cu. meter AHD/W7
  sterigma n stalk, support, slender projection AHD/CDC
  stern adj austere, hard/severe in nature/manner AHD/W7
  stork n large Old World wading bird AHD/W7
  strabismus n inability to attain binocular vision AHD/W7
  strabotomy n surgical incision of eye muscle/tendon AHD
  strafe vb to rake with gunfire W7
  strepto- pfx twisted AHD/W7
  streptomycin n antibiotic for bacterial infections AHD
  streptonigrin n highly toxic antibiotic for tumors AHD
  stride, strode, stridden vb.str to stand astride, walk with long steps W7
  stride n long step W7
  Strider prop.n man a.k.a. Aragorn in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  strime vb.dial to stride IEW
  strobilus n aggregation of sporophylls resembling cone AHD/W7
  stroboscope n instrument for measuring speed/frequency of rotation/vibration AHD/W7
  strop n strap, strip of leather/canvas AHD
  strophe n turning movement of classical Greek chorus AHD/W7
  strophoid n nodal plane cubic curve AHD/CDC
  strophulus n red-gum: papular skin eruption AHD
  struggle vb to strive, use strong/violent effort IEW/W7
  strumpery n.obs whoredom, harlotry, prostitution OED
  strumpet n whore, harlot, prostitute OED
  strut vb to swell, become turgid AHD/W7
  throat n part of neck in front of spinal column IEW/W7
  thropple n throttle IEW
  throttle n throat, windpipe, trachea IEW
  throttle vb to choke, compress throat W7
  torpedo n electric ray AHD/W7
  torpid adj numb, dormant, without motion/feeling/power of exertion AHD/W7
  torpor n state of mental/motor inactivity AHD/W7
Scots English: strunt vb.dial to strut, swagger IEW/W7
Old Frisian: sterk adj stiff, rigid, hard ASD
  strid n strife ASD
  strida vb.wk to contend ASD
Dutch: staart n tail TLL
  struik n bush TLL
Old Saxon: stark adj hard, stiff, rigid ASD
  strid n strife, contest ASD
  stridian vb to dispute, contend ASD
Old High German: drozza n throat W7
  starc/starah adj stark W7/ASD
  staren vb to stare W7
  sterban vb to die W7
  sterz n tail LRC
  storah/storc n stork W7/ASD
  strit n strife, contest ASD
  stritan vb.str to dispute, contend ASD
Middle High German: sterzen vb to stand stiffly, move quickly W7
German: stark adj strong LRC
  starren vb to stare LRC
  sterben vb to die LRC
  Storch n.masc stork LRC
  strafen vb to fine, punish, chastise TLL
  Strauch n.masc bush, shrub LRC
  Strumpf n.masc sock, stocking TLL
Old Norse: starf n.neut work, trouble LRC
  sterkr adj stark LRC
  stertr n tail LRC
  strúpi n throat LRC
Icelandic: stara vb to stare ASD
  sterkr adj stark ASD
  storkr n stork ASD
Danish: stork n stork TLL
  straffe vb to punish TLL
  strube n throat (internal) TLL
  strømpe n stocking TLL
Swedish: stork n stork TLL
  strumpa n stocking TLL
  strupe n throat (internal) TLL
Latin: stirps n.fem trunk, root W7
  strenuus adj strenuous W7
  struma n.fem goiter W7
  torpedo n.fem torpor, numbness W7
  torpeo, torpere vb to be stiff/numb W7
  torpidus adj torpid W7
  torpor n.masc slumber, stiffness W7
Late Latin: anastrophe n anastrophe AHD
  apostrophus n.masc turning away W7
  strobilus n.masc pine cone W7
New Latin: strabismus n.masc strabismus, condition of squinting W7
  strepto- vb.ptc strepto- W7
  strobilus n.masc twisted object, pine cone W7
Middle French: apostrophe n.fem apostrophe W7
French: apostrophe n apostrophe AHD
  cholésterine n.fem solid cholesterol W7
  stère n.masc stere W7/R1
Lithuanian: starinti vb to stiffen W7
Old Church Slavonic: straxu' n.masc terror LRC
Homeric Greek: apo-stréphô vb to turn/twist back/away LRC
  stereós adj hard, stiff, solid LRC
  streptós adj twisted, braided LRC
  stréphô vb to turn, twist LRC
  strôpháô vb to tarry, keep turning LRC
Greek: ana-stréphô vb to turn back LRC
  ana-strophe n.fem turning back W7
  apo-strophos adj turned away W7
  bou-strophedon adv turning like oxen (in plowing) W7
  dia-stréphô vb to distort LRC
  dia-strophe n.fem twisting W7
  kata-stréphô vb to overturn LRC
  kata-strophe n.fem catastrophe, overturning W7
  strabizein vb to squint W7
  strabismos n.masc strabismus, condition of squinting W7
  strabos adj squinting, squint-eyed W7
  strobilos n.masc pine cone W7
  strobos n.masc action of whirling W7
  strophe n.fem act of turning W7
  upo-stréphô vb to turn away LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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