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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. streig-   'taut, stiff, strict; to twist; rope'

Semantic Fields: Hard; to Join, Unite; Rope, Cord


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: strician vb to knit, darn, mend, repair IEW
Middle English: constrainen vb to constrain W7
  destresse n distress W7
  distreynen vb to distrain W7
  restraynen vb to restrain W7
  strainen vb to strain W7
  strait adj strait W7
  stresse n stress W7
English: astringent adj styptic, puckery, able to draw together soft organic tissues AHD/W7
  constrain vb.trans to compel AHD/W7
  constraint n check, restraint TLL
  constriction n tightening TLL
  distrain vb to levy distress upon AHD/W7
  distress n seizure/detention of one's goods AHD/W7
  prestige n standing/estimation in public opinion AHD/W7
  restrain vb.trans to prevent from doing AHD/W7
  restrict vb.trans to restrain, confine within bounds AHD/W7
  strain vb to draw tight, stretch taut AHD/W7
  strait adj narrow, restricted AHD/W7
  stress n constraining force/influence AHD/W7
  stretto n overlap in musical fugue of answer with subject AHD/W7
  strict adj permitting no escape/evasion AHD/W7
  stringendo adj with accelerating tempo AHD
  stringent adj tight, constricted AHD/W7
Old High German: stricchen vb to tie, knit ASD
German: stricken vb to knit ASD
Latin: adstringens, adstringentis adj/vb.ptc astringent, tightening CDC
  astringens, astringentis adj/vb.ptc astringent, tightening W7
  astringo, astringere vb to tighten, bind fast W7
  constringo, constringere vb to draw together, bind fast W7
  districtus vb.ptc drawn apart, stretched out W7
  distringo, distringere vb to distrain, draw apart W7
  praestigia n.fem sleight, illusion, deception, conjuror's trick W7
  praestringo, praestringere vb to tie up, blindfold W7
  restrictus vb.ptc restricted W7
  restringo, restringere vb to restrict W7
  strictus, stricta, strictum adj strict, tight, drawn together LRC
  stringens, stringentis adj/vb.ptc stringent, binding tight W7
  stringo, stringere, strinxi, strictum vb to tie, fasten, bind/draw tight IEW
Vulgar Latin: districtia n.fem distress W7
Late Latin: praestigium n.neut prestige W7
Medieval Latin: distringo, distringere vb to distrain W7
Old French: destreindre vb to distrain, draw apart W7
  destresse n.fem distress W7
  estreit adj strict W7
Middle French: astringent n.masc binding W7
  constraindre vb to constrain W7
  estraindre vb to press in one's arms W7
  prestige n.masc sleight, illusion, deception, conjuror's trick W7
  restraindre vb to restrain W7
French: astringent adj binding, astringent CDC
  prestige n.masc glory, honor, prestige W7
Italian: stretta n.fem squeeze, pressure W7
  stretto adj close, narrow W7
  stringendo adj stringendo, drawing tight AHD
  stringere vb to draw tight AHD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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