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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: su-ro-, sou-ro-   'sour, bitter, salty; cheese'

Semantic Fields: Sour, Acidic; Bitter; Salty; Cheese


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: sur adj sour W7
Middle English: sorel n sorrel W7
  sour adj sour W7
English: choucroute n Alsatian sauerkraut dish AHD
  sauerbraten n roasted marinated beef AHD/W7
  sauerkraut n cabbage cut fine/fermented in brine AHD/W7
  Sauron prop.n evil being in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  sorrel n plant with sour juice AHD/W7
  sour adj re: acidic taste AHD/W7
Old High German: sur adj sour W7
German: sauer adj sour W7
  Sauerampfer n.masc sorrel LRC
  Sauerbraten n.masc sauerbraten, lit. sour roast W7
  Sauerkraut n.neut sauerkraut, lit. sour cabbage W7
Old Norse: saurr n.masc mud, dirt, filth, dung, excrement ICE
Old Icelandic: súrr adj sour, acidic ICE
Icelandic: súrr adj sour ASD
Swedish: skör-agtig adj lewd ICE
Old French: sur(ele) adj sour AHD/W7
Middle French: surele adj sour W7
French: sur adj sour LRC
Lithuanian: surus adj salty W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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