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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: tag-, or teg- : tog- : teg-   'to grip, seize, touch'

Semantic Fields: to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of; to Touch


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: þaccian vb to pat, stroke, touch gently RPN
Middle English: atteynen/at(t)ainen/at(t)einen vb to attain W7/CDC
  entire adj entire W7
  intacte adj intact W7
  taske n task W7
  tasten vb to taste, touch, test W7
  taxen vb to tax, assess, estimate W7
English: attain vb to achieve, accomplish AHD/W7
  contact n union/junction of surfaces AHD/W7
  contaminate vb.trans to soil/stain/infect by contact/association AHD/W7
  entire adj having no part/element left out AHD/W7
  intact adj entire, untouched, uninjured AHD/W7
  integer n natural number (0, 1, 2...) AHD/W7
  integrate vb to unite, form into whole AHD/W7
  integrity n soundness, unimpaired condition AHD/W7
  tact n sensitive mental/aesthetic perception AHD/W7
  tactoreceptor n receptor responding to touch AHD
  tangent adj meeting/touching at a point AHD/W7
  tangent n ratio of opposite to adjacent sides (trigonometry) AHD/W7
  tangible adj palpable, perceptible by touch AHD/W7
  tangoreceptor n cutaneous receptor responding to touch/pressure AHD
  task n assigned piece of work AHD/W7
  taste vb to undergo, experience AHD/W7
  tax vb.trans to assess/determine amount of (judicially) AHD/W7
Old Latin: tago vb to touch RPN
Latin: attingo, attingere vb to touch W7
  contactus vb.ptc having touched W7
  contagio n.fem contagion W7
  contaminatus vb.ptc contaminated, dirtied W7
  contamino, contaminare vb to dirty, mix together W7
  contingo, contingere vb to touch, concern, happen W7
  intactus vb.ptc untouched, unbroken W7
  integer adj untouched, unharmed W7
  integratus vb.ptc integrated W7
  integro, integrare vb to integrate W7
  tactus vb.ptc touched W7
  tangens, tangentis vb.pres.ptc touching, tangent W7
  tango, tangere vb to touch, strike, push RPN
  taxo, taxare vb to touch W7
Vulgar Latin: attango, attangere vb to touch W7
  taxito, taxitare vb to touch W7
Late Latin: tangibilis adj touchable W7
Medieval Latin: tasca n.fem tax/service imposed by feudal superior W7
  taxo, taxare vb to tax W7
Portuguese: inteiro adj entire TLL
Spanish: entero adj entire TLL
Old French: ataindre/atteindre vb to reach, attain W7/CDC
  taster vb to taste, try W7
Old North French: tasque n.fem task W7
Middle French: ataint vb.ptc attained W7
  entir adj entire W7
  taxer vb to tax W7
French: atteindre vb to attain CDC
  contact n.masc contact W7
  entier adj entire TLL
  tact n.masc tact, sense of touch, delicateness, consideration W7
Old Occitan: ateigner/atenher vb to attain CDC
Italian: attignere/attingere vb to attain CDC
  intero adj entire TLL
Greek: tetagôn vb.act.perf.ptc having seized RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
act=active (voice)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
perf=perfect (aspect)
pres=present (tense)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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