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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. ten-, tend-   'to span, stretch, extend'

Semantic Fields: to Stretch; to Grow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: tan n time LRC
Welsh: tant n string LRC
Old English: þenian/þennan vb to stretch, extend RPN
Middle English: absteinen vb to abstain W7
  attenden vb to attend W7
  conteinen vb to contain W7
  continuen vb to continue W7
  deteynen vb to detain W7
  distenden vb to distend W7
  entenden/intenden vb to intend W7
  entertinen vb to entertain W7
  extenden vb to extend W7
  lieutenant n lieutenant W7
  mainteinen vb to maintain W7
  obteinen vb to obtain W7
  perteinen vb to pertain W7
  portenden vb to portend W7
  pretenden vb to pretend W7
  reine n rein W7
  retainen/reteinen vb to retain W7
  retenue n retinue W7
  sustenen vb to sustain W7
  tenant n tenant W7
  tenden vb to tend W7
  tender n tender W7
  tenement n tenement W7
  tenon n tenon W7
  tenor n tenor W7
  tente n tent W7
  tenure n tenure W7
  tetanus n tetanus W7
  tone n tone W7
English: abstain vb.intrans to refrain from action AHD/W7
  anatase n tetragonal titanium dioxide AHD/W7
  attend vb to give heed to AHD/W7
  attenuate vb to make thin/slender AHD/W7
  baritone n male singing voice between bass and tenor AHD/W7
  bronchiectasis n chronic dilation of bronchial tubes AHD
  catatonia n catalepsy AHD/W7
  contain vb to restrain, keep within limits AHD/W7
  contend vb to vie/strive in contest/rivalry/against difficulties AHD/W7
  continue vb to maintain without interruption AHD/W7
  detain vb.trans to hold/keep (as if) in custody AHD/W7
  detent n mechanism to lock/unlock movement AHD/W7
  detente n easing of tensions/relations AHD
  distend vb to extend AHD/W7
  entasis n slight bulge in shaft of column AHD
  entertain vb to maintain, receive AHD/W7
  epitasis n development in play leading to catastrophe AHD/W7
  extend vb to stretch out AHD/W7
  extenuate vb.trans to make light of AHD/W7
  hypotenuse n side of triangle opposite right angle AHD/W7
  intend vb to construe, interpret, understand; mean, signify AHD/W7
  intenerate vb.trans to soften, make tender AHD/W7
  lieutenant n officer exercising power for higher official AHD/W7
  maintain vb.trans to keep in existing state, preserve from decline/failure AHD/W7
  neoteny n attainment of sexual maturity in larval stage AHD/W7
  obtain vb to gain/attain (by planning) AHD/W7
  ostensible adj open to view, intended for display AHD/W7
  peritoneum n smooth transparent serous membrane lining mammalian abdominal cavity AHD/W7
  pertain vb.trans to belong as part/member/product/accessory AHD/W7
  pertinacious adj adhering resolutely to design/purpose/opinion AHD/W7
  polytene adj re: large multistranded chromosomes with chromomeres in contact AHD
  portend vb.trans to bode, give omen/anticipatory sign of AHD/W7
  pretend vb to profess, hold out appearance of being/possessing/performing AHD/W7
  protasis n introductory part of play/narrative poem AHD/W7
  rein n line fastened to each side of bit for control AHD/W7
  retain vb.trans to keep in use/possession AHD/W7
  retinaculum n connecting/retaining band/body AHD/W7
  retinue n suite, body of retainers AHD/W7
  sitar n Hindu guitar with long neck AHD/W7
  subtend vb.trans to be opposite to AHD/W7
  sustain vb.trans to give support/relief to AHD/W7
  syntonic adj responsive/adaptive to social/interpersonal environment AHD/W7
  taenia n ancient Greek fillet AHD/W7
  tantra n Hindu/Buddhist scripture marked by magic/mysticism AHD/W7
  telangiectasia n abnormal arteriole/capillary vessel dilation AHD/W7
  tenable adj reasonable, defensible, able to be held/maintained AHD/W7
  tenacious adj tough, cohesive, not easily pulled apart AHD/W7
  tenaculum n slender sharp-pointed hook on handle AHD/W7
  tenant n one who holds/possesses real estate/personal property by right AHD/W7
  tend vb to move/direct/develop one's course in particular direction AHD/W7
  tender adj fragile, delicate, having soft/yielding texture AHD/W7
  tender n offer of money/service to satisfy debt/obligation AHD/W7
  tendon n tough dense white fibrous cord/band attached to muscle AHD/W7
  tendril n slender spiral organ attaching plant to support AHD/W7
  tenement n holding, land/incorporeal property held by person AHD/W7
  tenesmus n ineffectual urge to evacuate rectum/bladder AHD/W7
  tenet n belief/doctrine/principle held to be true AHD/W7
  tenon n projecting member for insertion into mortise AHD/W7
  tenor n purport, general drift of spoken/written discourse AHD/W7
  tenorrhaphy n surgical suturing of divided tendons AHD
  tense adj rigid, stretched tight, made taut AHD/W7
  tent n collapsible shelter of canvas/other material on poles AHD/W7
  tenuous adj rare, not dense AHD/W7
  tenure n act/right/term/manner of holding something AHD/W7
  tenuto adv holding tone/chord firmly to full length AHD/W7
  tetanus n lockjaw (acute infectious disease) AHD/W7
  tone n vocal/musical sound AHD/W7
  tonoplast n vacuolar membrane AHD
Old Saxon: þennian vb to stretch, extend RPN
Old Low German: thenan vb to stretch, extend ASD
Old High German: den(n)en vb to stretch, extend RPN
German: dehnen vb to stretch, extend LRC
  Katatonie n.fem catatonia W7
Old Icelandic: þenja vb to stretch, extend RPN
Icelandic: þenja vb to stretch, extend ASD
Gothic: uf-þanjan vb to stretch, extend, strive for RPN
Umbrian: en-tentu n.dat to the one stretched out LRC
Latin: abstineo, abstinere vb to abstain W7
  attendo, attendere vb to stretch to W7
  attenuatus vb.ptc made thin W7
  attenuo, attenuare vb to make thin W7
  contendo, contendere vb to strain, exert W7
  contineo, continere vb to contain W7
  continuo, continuare vb to continue W7
  continuus adj continuous W7
  detineo, detinere vb to detain W7
  distendo, distendere vb to distend, stretch apart W7
  extendo, extendere vb to extend, stretch out W7
  extenuatus vb.ptc reduced, weakened, diminished W7
  extenuo, extenuare vb to reduce, weaken, diminish W7
  hypotenusa n.fem hypotenuse W7
  intendo, intendere vb to attend, direct attention to W7
  intentio, intentionis n.fem effort LRC
  obtineo, obtinere vb to obtain, possess, hold on to W7
  ostendo, ostendere vb to show W7
  ostensus vb.ptc shown W7
  pertinax, pertinacis adj tenacious W7
  pertineo, pertinere vb to pertain W7
  portendo, portendere vb to stretch forward W7
  praetendo, praetendere vb to allege as excuse, stretch (curtain) in front of W7
  retinaculum n.neut halter, cable W7
  retineo, retinere vb to restrain, hold back W7
  subtendo, subtendere vb to stretch beneath W7
  sustineo, sustinere vb to sustain, hold up W7
  taenia n.fem band, head-band; tapeworm W7
  tenax, tenacis adj tenacious W7
  tendo, tendere vb to stretch, extend RPN
  teneo, tenere, tenui vb to hold, control, understand LRC
  tener adj tenuous, delicate W7
  tenesmos n.masc straining at stool W7
  tenor n.masc uninterrupted course W7
  tensus vb.ptc stretched out W7
  tenta vb.ptc.fem tense W7
  tetanus n.masc tetanus W7
  tonus n.masc tone, tension W7
Vulgar Latin: *retina n.fem rein, restraint W7
  tenitus vb.ptc tenured W7
Late Latin: peritoneum n.neut peritoneum W7
  protasis n.fem protasis W7
  tenaculum n.neut instrument for holding W7
Medieval Latin: manuteneo, manutenere vb to maintain W7
  tendo, tendonis n.masc tendril W7
  tenementum n.neut tenement W7
  tenitura n.fem (land) tenure W7
New Latin: catatonia n.fem catatonia, tone going down W7
  ectasia n.fem dilatation of vessels W7
  ectasis n.fem ectasis W7
  neotenia n.fem neoteny W7
  retinaculum n.neut retinaculum W7
  telangiectasia n.fem abnormal dilation of blood vessels and arterioles W7
  tenaculum n.neut instrument for holding W7
  tonus n.masc a state of partial contraction of a normal muscle W7
Portuguese: attender vb to attend CDC
  attenuar vb to attenuate CDC
  ter vb to have TLL
Spanish: atender vb to attend CDC
  atenuar vb to attenuate CDC
  tener vb to hold, have TLL
Old French: abstenir vb to abstain, refrain from AHD
  atendre vb to wait, attend CDC
  contenir vb to contain W7
  destendre vb to loosen reins W7
  maintenir vb to maintain W7
  sustenir vb to sustain W7
  tenable adj defensible, reasonable W7
  tendre vb to stretch W7
  teneüre n.fem land tenure W7
  tenir vb to hold W7
  tenon n.masc device to hold, kind of nail W7
  tenor n.masc tenor, uninterrupted course W7
  tente n.fem tent W7
  tenure n.fem land tenure W7
Anglo-French: estendre vb to extend W7
Middle French: abstenir vb to abstain W7
  contendre vb to contend W7
  continuer vb to continue W7
  destendre vb to slacken W7
  destente n.fem relaxation W7
  detenir vb to detain W7
  entendre vb to purpose, intend W7
  entretenir vb to entertain W7
  estendre vb to tighten, to extend W7
  lieutenant n.masc lieutenant W7
  obtenir vb to obtain W7
  partenir vb to pertain W7
  rene n rein W7
  retenir vb to retain W7
  retenu vb.ptc retained W7
  retenue vb.ptc.fem retained W7
  tenant vb.pres.ptc holding W7
  tendon n.masc tendon W7
  tendre vb to stretch (out), offer W7
  tendron n.masc tendril W7
  tenement n.masc part that holds W7
  tenir vb to hold W7
French: anatase n anatase AHD
  attendere vb to wait, attend CDC
  atténuer vb to attenuate CDC
  baryton n.masc baritone W7
  détente n.fem relaxation W7
  ostensible adj apparent, visible, displayable in public W7
  tenable adj tenable W7
  tenir vb to hold, have TLL
Old Occitan: atenuar vb to attenuate CDC
Italian: attendere vb to attend CDC
  attenuare vb to attenuate CDC
  baritono n.masc baritone W7
  tenere vb to hold W7
  tenuto vb.ptc held, bound W7
Lithuanian: tìnstu vb to swell LRC
Latvian: tinu vb to braid, weave LRC
Old Church Slavonic: teneto n cord LRC
Albanian: ndënj vb to spread out LRC
Homeric Greek: tanúô vb to stretch (out), extend RPN
Greek: anástasis n.fem removal, raising/rising up/again LS
  anatasis n extension AHD
  ana-teínô vb to extend, lift/stretch/hold up/out LS
  barú-tonos adj deep-sounding LS
  epi-teínô vb to stretch (up)on/over LS
  peritonaion n.neut peritoneum W7
  peritonaios adj stretched around W7
  pró-tasis n.fem proposition, premise of syllogism LS
  pro-teínô vb to put forward, stretch out before LS
  súntonos adj strained, intense, vehement LS
  tainía n.fem (head)band, fillet LS
  teínô vb to spread, stretch, extend RPN
  tetanós adj straight, stretched, rigid LS
  tónos n.masc strain, tension, stretching LS
  hypoteinousa n.fem hypotenuse W7
  upo-teínô vb to subtend, suggest LS
Avestan: tanava vb to keep distant LRC
Sanskrit: tatá-h vb.past.pass.ptc stretched, extended RPN
  tanóti vb to stretch, extend, lengthen RPN
  tantra n tantra W7
Hindi: sitar n Hindu guitar W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pass=passive (voice)
past=past (tense)
pres=present (tense)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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