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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. tenk-   'to clot, thicken, contract; tight, solid'

Semantic Fields: Thick (in Density); Hard


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: geþeon, geþah, geþigon, geþigen vb.str.I to thrive, prosper LRC
  geðungen adj grown, advanced; noble, excellent ASD
  ðengel n.masc prince IEW/ASD
  þingan vb to invite, address; prosper, flourish RPN
  þo(h)e/þo n.fem clay KEW/ASD
Middle English: t(h)ight adj tight W7
English: tangle n large seaweed AHD/W7
  Thengel prop.n 16th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  tight adj re: firm compact texture AHD/W7
Old Saxon: giþungan adj grown, advanced; noble, excellent ASD
Old High German: daha n clay KDW
  dingen vb to bring together ASD
  gi-dingen vb to address ASD
Middle High German: dihte adj thick W7
German: dicht adj thick, tight, close LRC
  Dichte n.fem thickness, density LRC
  Ton n clay TLL
Old Norse: þang n kelp W7
  þettr adj tight W7
  þöngull n tangle, seaweed W7
Old Icelandic: þengill n king, lord, prince, captain IEW
Icelandic: þa n muddy ground ASD
  þengill n.masc prince ASD
Gothic: þaho n clay KGW
  þeihan vb.str.I to thrive, prosper LRC
Lithuanian: teikti, teikia, teike vb to give, render LRC
  tìkras, tikrà adj genuine LRC
Sanskrit: tanakti vb to cause to coagulate W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KGW=Gerhard Köbler: Gotisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (1989)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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