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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: tragh-, trogh-, and tregh-   'to drag, train, pull, move'

Semantic Fields: to Draw, Pull; to Move


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: traig n foot RPN
Breton: troad n foot RPN
Old Cornish: truit n foot RPN
Welsh: troed n foot RPN
Old English: þrægan vb to run, proceed RPN
  þræl n.masc thrall W7
  þrag n.fem (period of) time, season RPN
Middle English: atrete adv plainly, straight out MEV
  attracten vb to attract W7
  contract n contract W7
  detracten vb to detract W7
  distracten vb to distract W7
  extracten vb to extract W7
  portraien vb to portray W7
  retracten vb to retract W7
  thral n thrall W7
  tract n tract W7
  trailen vb to trail W7
  train n train W7
  trainen vb to train W7
  treten vb to treat W7
English: abstract adj dissociated from specific instance AHD/W7
  abstract vb to remove, separate W7
  attract vb to cause to approach/adhere AHD/W7
  contract n covenant, binding agreement AHD/W7
  contract vb to establish/undertake by contract AHD/W7
  detract vb to speak ill of AHD/W7
  distract vb.trans to divert, turn aside AHD/W7
  extract vb.trans to draw forth AHD/W7
  portray vb.trans to depict, make picture of AHD/W7
  protract vb.trans to defer, delay AHD/W7
  retract vb to draw back/in AHD/W7
  subtract vb to deduct, take away AHD/W7
  thrall n serf, slave, servant W7
  tract n pamphlet/leaflet of political/religious propaganda AHD/W7
  tractable adj docile, able to be led/taught/controlled easily AHD/W7
  traction n act/state of pulling/being drawn AHD/W7
  trail vb to hang down dragging/sweeping along ground AHD/W7
  train n part of gown trailing behind wearer AHD/W7
  train vb to drag, trail AHD/W7
  trait n stroke (as) of pencil AHD/W7
  treat vb to negotiate, discuss terms of settlement/accommodation AHD/W7
Old High German: drigil n servant RPN
German: abstrahieren vb to abstract LRC
Old Icelandic: þræll n thrall RPN
Icelandic: þræll n.masc thrall ASD
Gothic: þragjan vb to run RPN
Latin: abstractus vb.ptc detached, drawn away W7
  abstraho, abstrahere vb to detach, draw away W7
  attractus vb.ptc attracted, drawn to W7
  attraho, attrahere vb to attract, draw to W7
  contractus vb.ptc driven, hauled W7
  contraho, contrahere vb to draw together, reduce in size; make a contract W7
  detractus vb.ptc withdrawn, disparaged W7
  detraho, detrahere vb to withdraw, disparage W7
  distractus vb.ptc drawn apart W7
  distraho, distrahere vb to draw apart W7
  extractus vb.ptc drawn out W7
  extraho, extrahere vb to draw out W7
  protractus vb.ptc drawn forward W7
  protraho, protrahere vb to draw forward W7
  retractus vb.ptc drawn back W7
  retraho, retrahere vb to draw back W7
  subtractus vb.ptc subtracted, taken away W7
  subtraho, subtrahere vb to withdraw, draw from beneath W7
  tractabilis adj tractable W7
  tractatus n.masc treatise, management W7
  tracto, tractare vb to draw, drag, tug; treat, handle RPN
  tractus, tractus n.masc traction TLL
  tractus vb.ptc dragged W7
  tragula n.fem sledge, dragnet W7
  traho, trahere vb to draw, drag, haul RPN
Vulgar Latin: tragino, traginare vb to drag W7
Medieval Latin: abstractus vb.ptc drawn away, detached W7
New Latin: tractio, tractionis n.fem traction W7
Old French: train n.masc action of dragging W7
  traîner vb to drag W7
  traitier vb to treat, handle W7
Middle French: contracter vb to agree upon W7
  portraire vb to portray W7
  trailler vb to tow W7
  traîner vb to draw, drag W7
  trait n.masc trait, trace, draft W7
Albanian: kontratë n.fem contract LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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