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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: 2. trep-   'to bow the head, turn away in shame'

Semantic Fields: to Bend; Shame (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: contreven/controven vb to contrive W7
  retreven vb to retrieve W7
  tropik n tropic W7
English: apotropaic adj averting evil AHD
  contrive vb to plan, devise AHD/W7
  nyctitropism n tendency of plant leaves to change position at nightfall AHD
  retrieve vb to discover/bring in (killed/wounded game) AHD/W7
  thixotropy n (gel) becoming fluid when stirred/shaken but returning to semisolid state when standing AHD
  trope n figure of speech, figurative sense AHD/W7
  trophallaxis n mutual exchange of food among social insects AHD
  trophy n memorial of ancient (Greek/Roman) victory AHD/W7
  tropic n circle on celestial sphere (23 1/2 degrees from equator) AHD/W7
  tropism n involuntary turning/curving by organism W7
  trop(o)- pfx turn, change, turning AHD/W7
  -tropous adj re: turning/curving, exhibiting tropism AHD/W7
  troubadour n lyric poet/minstrel/musician from France/Provence/Italy AHD/W7
  trover n common law action recovering (value of) goods wrongfully taken AHD/W7
Latin: trepit he turns W7
  trop(h)aeum n.neut trophy W7
  tropicus adj re: tropic/solstice W7
  tropus n.masc trope, way, style, manner W7
  turpis, turpis, turpe adj shameful, disgraceful LRC
Vulgar Latin: tropo, tropare vb to compose (poetry) W7
Late Latin: controparo, contropare vb to compare W7
Middle French: controver vb to contrive W7
  retrouver vb to retrieve, find again W7
  trophée n.masc trophy W7
  tro(u)ver vb to find W7
French: troubadour n.masc troubadour W7
Old Proven├žal: trobador n.masc troubadour W7
  trobar vb to compose poetry W7
Doric: trápô vb to turn LRC
Homeric Greek: tropéô vb to turn about LRC
Greek: apotrópaios adj apotropaic LS
  polútropos adj much-turned, much-traveled LRC
  trépô vb to turn LRC
  trópaion n.neut trophy; scarecrow LRC
  tropaîos adj re: turning, defeat LS
  tropê n.fem turn, rout LRC
  tropikós adj re: tropic/solstice LRC
  trópos n.masc trope, way, style, manner LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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