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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: tu   'thou, you'

Semantic Field: Human Being


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: taí thy, thine RPN thou RPN
Scots Gaelic: tu you TLL
Old English: ðin thy, thine W7/ASD
  ðu thou W7
Middle English: thin thine W7
  thou thou W7
  thy thy W7
English: thee you LRC
  thine your(s) AHD/W7
  thou you AHD/W7
  thy your, re: you/yourself as possessor AHD/W7
Old Frisian: thin thy, thine ASD
  thu thou ASD
Old Saxon: thu thou ASD
Old Low German: thin thy, thine ASD
Old High German: din thy, thine ASD
  du thou W7
German: dein thy, thine LRC
  dich thee TLL
  dir (to) thee TLL
  du thou LRC
Old Norse: þú thou LRC
Icelandic: þið pron.2.du you two TLL
  þik thee TLL
  þinn thy, thine ASD
  þjér you TLL
  þú thou ASD
Danish: dig (to) thee TLL
  din thy, thine TLL
  du thou TLL
Swedish: dej (to) thee TLL
  dig (to) thee TLL
  din thy, thine TLL
  du thou TLL
Gothic: þeina thy, thine RPN
  þeins thy, thine ASD
  þu thou LRC
  þuk thee RPN
  þus (to) thee RPN
Crimean Gothic: *þo/tzo you CGo
Old Latin: ted you RPN
Latin: te you RPN
  te thee RPN
  tibi (to) thee RPN
  tu thou LRC
  tui thy, thine RPN
Italian: te (to) thee TLL
  tu thou TLL
Lithuanian: táv (to) thee RPN
  tavè thee RPN
  taves thy, thine RPN
  tavimì thee RPN
  tavyjè you RPN thou LRC
Old Church Slavonic: tvoi adj thy LRC
  tebe thy, thine RPN
  tebe thou RPN
  tebe (to) thee RPN
  ti thou RPN
  tobojo you RPN
  ty thou LRC
  te thee RPN
Russian: tebe (to) thee TLL
  tebya thee TLL
  ti thou TLL
Albanian: teje you RPN
  të/ti thou RPN
  ty thee RPN
Doric: thee RPN
  téos thy, thine RPN
  toi you RPN
  toí (to) thee RPN thou RPN
Greek: you LRC
Luwian: ti-i thou RPN
Hittite: -ta thee RPN
  -ta-as thy, thine RPN
  -te-it you RPN
  -te-it you RPN
  -ti (to) thee RPN
  -ti-in thee RPN
  -ti-is thou RPN
  tu-e-da-az you RPN
  tu-(e-)el thy, thine RPN
  tu-e-ta-za you RPN
  tu-ga you RPN
  tu-uk thee RPN
  zi-ga you RPN
  zi-ik thou RPN
Palaic: ti-i thou RPN
  tu-ú thee RPN
Classical Armenian: du thou LRC
Armenian: du thou RPN
Avestan: tu you RPN
  tum thou RPN
Sanskrit: táva thy, thine RPN
  túbhyam (to) thee RPN
  te you(r) RPN
  tvát you RPN
  tvám thou RPN
  tváya thee RPN
  tváyi you RPN
  tva thee RPN
  tvam thee RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
2=2nd person
abl=ablative (case)
acc=accusative (case)
dat=dative (case)
du=dual (number)
gen=genitive (case)
inst=instrumental (case)
loc=locative (case)
neut=neuter (gender)
nom=nominative (case)
obj=objective (case)
obl=oblique (case)
pl=plural (number)
poss=possessive (case)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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