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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: upo, up, eup, (e)up-s-   'under, (from) below, etc.'

Semantic Field: Low


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Welsh: gwas n boy, servant W7
Old English: (a)bufan/bufon adv above W7
  bufan/bufon prep above W7/ASD
  efes n.fem eaves W7
  ufan adv above W7
  ufe- pfx up LRC
  ufe-weard adj upward LRC
  up adv up, upwards LRC
  uppe adv up, above LRC
  yfel adj/n.neut evil IEW
Middle English: above adv/prep above W7
  eves n eaves W7
  evil adj/n evil W7
  oft adv often W7
  often adv often W7
  open adj open W7
  sub- pfx sub- W7
  supyn adj supine W7
  up adv upward W7
  uppe adv on high W7
  varlet n varlet, attendant W7
  vassal n vassal W7
  ypo- pfx hypo- W7
English: above adv/prep over(head), in(to) higher place W7
  eaves lower borders of roof overhanging wall AHD/W7
  eavesdrop vb to listen in secret AHD
  evil adj ill, bad, wicked, pernicious W7
  evil n wrong, mischief, wickedness LRC
  hyp(o)- pfx low, down, under, beneath AHD/W7
  hypogeal adj underground, beneath earth's surface AHD
  hypolimnion n water layer below thermocline AHD
  hypopnea n abnormally slow/shallow breathing AHD
  hyposthenia n weakness, abnormal lack of strength AHD
  hypothermia n abnormally low body temperature AHD
  hyps(o)- pfx height AHD
  oft adv often AHD/W7
  often adv frequently, many times AHD/W7
  opal n gemstone, silicon dioxide mineral AHD/W7
  open adj permitting ingress/egress/passage AHD/W7
  resupinate adj inverted, bent back to supine position AHD/W7
  soutane n cassock with buttons down front AHD/W7
  sub- pfx under, beneath, below, up to AHD/W7
  subduction n forcing one below another AHD
  subdue vb to conquer, vanquish, subjugate AHD
  subfusc adj dull, dark, somber AHD
  subter- pfx under TLL
  supine adj lying on back, with face upward AHD/W7
  up adv/prep in(to) higher level/position AHD/W7
  Upbourn prop.n Rohan village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  upholster vb to furnish with upholstery W7
  upholsterer n one who upholsters AHD
  upholstery n materials used to make soft covering W7
  upon prep up on LRC
  valet n man's male personal servant AHD/W7
  varlet n menial, attendant AHD/W7
  vassal n feudal tenant, one under protection of feudal lord AHD/W7
Old Frisian: evel adj/n.masc evil ASD
  ose eaves, edges of roof ASD
  up/op adv up ASD
Dutch: op prep on, upon TLL
  opdat prep in order that TLL
Old Saxon: ubil adj/n.masc evil ASD
  up adv up ASD
  uppa/uppe adv up, above, on high ASD
Old Low German: up adv up ASD
Old High German: obasa/opasa n portico W7/ASD
  offan adj open W7
  ofto adv often W7
  ubil adj/adv/n.masc evil IEW/ASD
  uf adv/prep up, on W7
Middle High German: obese n.fem vestibule ASD
German: auf prep up, upon LRC
  offen adj open LRC
  oft adv often LRC
  übel adj/adv evil LRC
Old Norse: of prep over, across, through; around, about, concerning LRC
Old Icelandic: of prep on, in, over LRC
Icelandic: ofan adv from above ASD
  upp(i) adv up, above, on high ASD
  ups n.fem eaves ASD
Danish: paa prep on, upon TLL
Swedish:  prep on, upon TLL
Gothic: ubil n.masc evil ASD
  ubils adj evil LRC
  ubizwa n.fem hall, porch ASD
Latin: opalus n.masc opal W7
  resupinatus vb.ptc resupinate W7
  resupino, resupinare vb to bend back to supine position W7
  sub prep under, up to LRC
  subfuscus adj subfusc, brownish AHD
  subitus, subita, subitum adj sudden LRC
  subter prep/adv underneath; secretly W7
  subtus prep underneath W7
  supinus adj supine, upside-down W7
  sus- pfx sub- W7
  sustineo, sustinere, sustinui, sustentum vb to hold back LRC
Late Latin: hyp(o)- pfx hypo- W7
  supinum n.neut supine W7
Medieval Latin: subtanus n.masc soutane W7
  vassallus n.masc vassal, servant W7
  vassellittus n.masc.dim little servant W7
  vassus n.masc vassal, servant W7
Old French: ypo- pfx hypo- W7
Middle French: valet n.masc page, valet, young nobleman W7
  varlet/vaslet n.masc varlet W7
  vassal n.masc vassal, servant W7
French: audessous adv below TLL
  sous prep below TLL
  soutane n.fem soutane W7
Italian: sottana n.fem soutane W7
  sottano vb.ptc being underneath W7
  sotto prep below TLL
Old Church Slavonic: vysoku' adj high, tall LRC
Greek: upárchô vb.ptc belonging to LRC
  upó prep by, under LRC
Sanskrit: upala n stone, jewel W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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